Year : 2012  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 350-357

Morphometric study of sacral hiatus in adult human Egyptian sacra: Their significance in caudal epidural anesthesia

1 Department of Orthopedic, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
3 Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Hosam M Atef
Department of Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.105862

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Background: The reliability and success of caudal epidural anesthesia depends on anatomic variations of sacral hiatus (SH) as observed by various authors. SH is an important landmark during caudal epidural block (CEB).The purpose of the present study was to clarify the morphometric characteristics of the SH in human Egyptian dry sacra and pelvic radiographs and identification of nearest ony landmarks to permit correct and uncomplicated caudal epidural accesses. Methods: The present study was done on 46 human adult Egyptian dry sacra. The maximum height, midventral curved length, and maximum breadth of each sacrum were measured and sacral and curvature indices were calculated. According to sacral indices, sacra were divided into 2 groups (22 male and 24 female sacra). SH was evaluated in each sacrum according to its shape, level of its apex, and base according to sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, length, anteroposterior (AP) diameter at its apex, and transverse width at its base. Linear distances were measured between the apex of SH and second sacral foramina, right and left superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the 2 superolateral sacral crests also was measured. Results: The most common types of SH were the inverted U and inverted V (in male) and inverted V and dumbbell shaped (in female). Absent SH was observed in male group only. The most common location of SH apex was at the level of S4 in all groups of dry sacra and S3 in all groups of lumbosacral spine radiographs, whereas S5 was the common level of its base. The mean SH length, transverse width of its base, and AP diameter of its apex were 2.1±0.80, 1.7±0.26, and 0.48±0.19 cm. Female sacra showed narrower SH apex than male. The distance between the S2 foramen and the apex of the SH was 4.1±1.14, 3.67±1.21, and 4.48±1.01 cm in total, female and male sacra, respectively. Conclusion: Sacrum and SH showed morphometric variations in adult Egyptians. The equilateral triangle is an important guide to detect SH easily and increases the success rate of CEB. Insertion of a needle into the SH for caudal block is suggested to be done at its base to avoid the anatomic variations of its apex.

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