Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 84-88
Hospital acquired blood stream infection as an adverse outcome for patients admitted to hospital with other principle diagnosis
Hamdan H Al-Hazmi1, Tariq Al-Zahrani2, Ahmed M Elmalky3
1 Department of Surgery, King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Anesthesia, King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Quality Coordinator of Hospital Morbidity and Mortality Review Committee (Clinical Outcome Review and Improvement Committee), King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
MD Hamdan H Al-Hazmi
Department of Surgery, Pediatric Urology, King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, PO Box 7805, Riyadh 11472
Source of Support: From King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, King Khalid University Hospital, Section of finance, Departement of research, clinical partition,, Conflict of Interest: S.S.'s sources of support had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
|Date of Web Publication||6-Nov-2014|
Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAI) have emerged as an important public health problem and are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They affect both developed and resource-poor countries and constitute a significant burden both for the patient and for the health care system. Specific objectives in this study are assessment of HAI rate among patients admitted with other principle diagnosis, to identifying the causative agents of hospital acquired infections and to identify some possible risk factors associated with each type of infection, both health related and non-health related. Patients and Methods: The study was done on selected diagnosis groups during year 2010. The infections were found among 250 patients (43.6% males) have been exposed to episodes of infections. Median age of patients was 56. Data were abstracted from the archived patients' files in medical record department using the annually infection control log-book prepared by the infection control department. The Data collected were demographic information about the patients (age and sex), clinical condition (diagnosis and the length of hospital stay) and possible risk factors for infection as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and exposure to invasive devices or exposure to surgical procedures. Results: Liver diseases 22.8%, cardiac diseases 22.8%, Gastro-Intestinal System diseases 20%, urinary system diseases 13.6%, and endocrinal disorder 13.6% Prostate gland diseases 7.2%. Episodes of infections caused by 9 types of organisms divided into 47.2% for blood stream infection and 52.8% for other types. 66% acquired blood stream infection were exposed to central venous line. Conclusion: Most common type of HAIs was blood stream infections. Liver, cardiac diseases and gastro-intestinal diseased patients show more proportion of HAIs while urinary system and prostate disease patients show less proportion of HAIs. Gram negative bacilli were the most common organisms found in our study (60%).
Keywords: Adverse outcome, hospital acquired infection, principle diagnosis
|How to cite this article:|
Al-Hazmi HH, Al-Zahrani T, Elmalky AM. Hospital acquired blood stream infection as an adverse outcome for patients admitted to hospital with other principle diagnosis. Saudi J Anaesth 2014;8, Suppl S1:84-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Al-Hazmi HH, Al-Zahrani T, Elmalky AM. Hospital acquired blood stream infection as an adverse outcome for patients admitted to hospital with other principle diagnosis. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Oct 1];8, Suppl S1:84-8. Available from: https://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2014/8/5/84/144084
| Introduction|| |
Hospital acquired infection (HAI) is defined as one that was neither present, nor incubating, at the time of admission to hospital and which manifests itself 48 h or more after hospital admission. HAI became an increasing worldwide problem, as every year many lives are lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. 
This is why a new revolution in the infection control field has been started all over the world. This has not been only coincided to the well-developed countries, but also developing countries started to focus on such issue. It became very important to review and update the epidemiology and outcome of infections; including an examination of the associated possible risk factors that are most strongly related to HAI. 
Understanding these variables will help to prioritize resources and plan strategies for decreasing the mortality and morbidity associated with each type of infection and to enhance infection control procedures in hospital and to assist the infection control practitioners in minimizing the number of infected patients through understanding the profile of HAI. 
Specific objectives in this study are assessment of HAI rate among patients admitted with other principle diagnosis, identifying the causative agents of HAI and to identify some possible risk factors associated with each type of infection, both health-related and nonhealth-related, regarding blood stream infection (BSI). 
| Materials and Methods|| |
This is a cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study, conducted in a university hospital. A total of 920 beds with an established infection control system that performs a continuous active surveillance among 250 inpatients admitted to the study hospital in period of time during 2010 with other principle diagnosis, other than cause of nosocomial infections, traced by infection control department during this period (primary and secondary infections).
The infection control log-book was reviewed and all cases meeting our inclusion criteria were selected. Infection control log-book in the infection control department is created as follows: Each patient admitted to the study hospital had his own file with unique medical identification number. If any admitted patient developed any signs or symptoms suspicious of infections; hence, samples were collected according to the type of infection and sent to the microbiology laboratory to be examined. Type of infection for each patient is determined according to preset clear case definition approved and documented in the infection control guidelines of the hospital. Case definition is based on the clinical picture and the bacteriological examination. Confirmed types of infections are verified as previously stated, the cases are then recorded into the infection control log-book.
Medical identification number of the patients selected from the infection control log-book was used to retrieve the archived files of the patients. Items collected in a data collection sheet were sociodemographic information, clinical condition of the patients (diagnosis and the length of hospital stay), and medical history of the patients (smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension), exposure to invasive devices or exposure to surgical procedures.
Data were entered in Excel Sheet, and then transferred to SPSS version 14 for data analysis. Simple frequency tables and cross tabulation were generated to describe the data. Chi-square and t-test were used to compare qualitative and quantitative data respectively. Significance was set at 0.05 level. Current study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Data were coded and patient names or identity did not appear in any of data collection forms or during statistical analysis.
| Results|| |
The study was done on selected diagnosis groups during the period of 12 months of year 2010. The infections detected were found among 250 patients of both sexes (43.6% males) [Table 1].
The 250 patients have been exposed to episodes of HAI. Liver diseases 22.8%, cardiac diseases 22.8%, gastrointestinal system diseases 20%, urinary system diseases 13.6%, and endocrinal disorder 13.6% prostate gland diseases 7.2% [Table 2].
Among the study group 35%, 43%, and 43% were smoker, diabetic and hypertensive, respectively [Table 3].
About 81% of the patients had only a single episode of infection. 19% of the patients had multiple episodes of infection. Less than one-third (28%) of the gastrointestinal system diseases patients had multiple episodes followed by the liver diseases patients (22%) and then urinary system diseases patients (20%) and at last the prostate gland diseases patients by (11%). Thus, the gastrointestinal system diseases patients were more prone to acquire single episode of infections, cardiac and endocrinal diseases acquired multiple episodes [Table 4].
|Table 4: Distribution of the diagnosis group with single infection episode|
Click here to view
Blood stream infection was the most common type of HAI in the study population (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34), (P = 0.00). 47.2% for BSI and 52.8% for other types of HAIs. Gram-negative Bacilli were the most common organisms found in our study 60% [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Type of organisms found in all episodes according their gram type|
Click here to view
A total of nine organisms were detected in all episodes of infections. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, cons and Pseudomonas are the most common organism involved in HAI with percent 16%, The most common organism isolated from hospital acquired BSI episodes-related to liver disease patients was E. coli (21.7%). The most common organism isolated from HAI-related to renal and urinary tract disease cases were E. coli (21.7%). The most common organism isolated from HAI belonging to gastrointestinal tract disease cases were cons (17.9%) and Pseudomonas (14.3%) [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Causative organisms isolated from hospital acquired blood stream infections episodes|
Click here to view
50% of the patients with HAI are those who underwent use of operation room, performing arterial line, or ventilated. About 66% of the infected patients had urinary catheterization. 75% of the patients with HAI had a central venous line performed [Table 5].
|Table 5: Proportion of the hospital acquired infection by type of hospital intervention|
Click here to view
There was statistical significance between the length of the hospital stay and HAI (P < 0.01).
| Discussion|| |
In our study, 43.6% of the hospital infection episodes were related to male patients, however, another study showed that males are more responsive to infections, whereas females are more responsive to noninfectious inflammation (the ratio is 4:1) and to auto-inflammatory diseases. 
The mean age of the patients included in our study was (56.21 ± 15.36) which shows that most of the infected patients were relatively old. Many studies described age as a risk factor for infections, especially the extremities of age. Very old and very young patients (premature and neonates) are considered the vulnerable group and the most susceptible for immunity system dysfunction as proved in other studies [Figure 3]. 
Our study showed that the gastrointestinal system diseases patients had the biggest contribution (28%) to those who suffered from multiple episodes of infections, followed by the liver diseases patients (22.9%), then urinary system diseases patients (20.6%), and finally the prostate gland diseases patients by (11.1%).
Several studies showed that the gastrointestinal system diseases patients have higher chances of getting infections due to immunomicrobiological characteristics of the intestine. 
It was also found that the translocation of the enteral micro-flora in acute intestinal obstruction was accompanied by the penetration of infective agents into the general blood stream. 
In our study, liver and gastrointestinal diseases groups show more HAI. On the other hand, urinary system and prostate diseases show less proportion of HAI. Several studies concluded that liver disease patients, especially those with cirrhosis, have altered immune defenses and are considered immune-compromised individuals. Changes in gut motility, mucosal defense, and micro-flora allow for translocation of enteric bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes and the blood stream. In addition, the cirrhotic liver is ineffective at clearing bacteria and associated endotoxins from the blood, thus allowing for seeding of the sterile peritoneal fluid. 
In our study, we found that BSI episodes were the most common type of infection affecting 56%, 42%, and 32% of liver diseases patients, urinary system diseases patients and gastrointestinal system diseases patients, respectively. Similar finding was concluded in another study found that BSIs were the most common type of infection affecting 33% of living donor liver recipient and 24% of cadaver donor liver recipient. 
Blood stream infection was the most common type of HAI in the study population (OR = 4.34). A total of 358 nosocomial infections were diagnosed among 1051 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. BSI was the most frequent nosocomial infection (in 195 neonates [54.5%]), followed by pneumonia (46 [12.8%]). Gram-negative Bacilli were the most common organisms (60%) found in our study, followed by Gram-positive cocci (36%) and then fungi (4%). The same findings were found in another study at National Cheng Kung University Hospital from 1996 to 2003. There were 4038 episodes of nosocomial BSIs. 
Gram-negative Bacilli, Gram-positive-cocci and fungi were responsible for 51%, 37% and 10%, respectively In our study, the common organisms detected in HAI are E. coli (found in 18.4% and 29.2%, respectively), followed by Pseudomonas (14% and 4.6%, respectively), Klebsiella (13.2 and 6.2%, respectively) and Enterococcus (13.2 and 15.4%, respectively). Almost similar results were found in a study describing the highly resistant microorganisms in a teaching hospital at The Netherlands. 
It was found that E. coli contributed to 56%, while Klebsiella contributed to 6.5% of infections in our study, the most common organisms isolated from hospital acquired BSI were coagulase-negative staphylococci (Cons), Pseudomonas, E. coli, and Enterococcus. Each had a 15.4% contribution to hospital acquired BSI. The same findings were concluded in a study that stated that the most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (Cons). 
We found that 42.3% of the organisms isolated from BSI were Gram-positive cocci and 55.8% were Gram-negative organisms. However, the reverse was found by Diekema et al. who stated that 60% of the organisms were Gram-positive and 31% Gram-negative. 
In our study, the most common organisms isolated from community acquired BSI were Cons (29.2%), Enterococcus (16.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.5%) and E. coli (12.5%). A study was performed in National Tokyo Medical Center from the period between November 2000 and October 2001 found that the most common organisms were E. coli, viridan group of streptococci, Streptococcus pneumonia. 
Twenty-seven of 32 patients who suffered from hospital acquired BSI were exposed to central venous line before the onset of infection (66%). Nearly, the same findings were found in a study conducted by Argentina's National Surveillance of Hospital Infections Program on 127 illnesses. 
Bloodstream infections took second place, at 20.5%, with 61% of these cases being associated with a central catheter. Several studies confirmed that prolonged hospitalization will not only act as a risk factor for the development of nosocomial infections, but it increases the incidence of infection by multidrug resistance organisms. 
In our study the median of the hospital length was 28.5 days in HAI cases while the median for community acquired episodes was 7 days. Hospital acquired infections directly proportionated with length of hospital stay in other study at which average length of stay was 20.6 days for cases with HAI in comparison to 4.5 days in cases without [Table 6]. 
| Conclusion|| |
The most common type of HAI was BSI episodes. Liver, cardiac diseases and gastrointestinal disease patients show more HAI. Urinary system and prostate disease patients show less proportion of HAI. Gram-negative Bacilli were the most common organisms found in our study (60%). The most common organisms isolated from hospital acquired BSIs were Cons, Pseudomonas, E. coli, and Enterococcus.
| Acknowledgment|| |
We thank the following responding authors who contributed significantly to this work by providing research librarian assistance and for providing manuscript editing assistance. (Written permission has been obtained to name them here): Ahmed Elmalky, Heba Abouldahab, Thanaa Kamal.
| References|| |
Alvarado CJ, Stolz SM, Maki DG. Nosocomial infections from contaminated endoscopes: A flawed automated endoscope washer. An investigation using molecular epidemiology. Am J Med 1991;91:272S-80.
Friedman ND, Kaye KS, Stout JE, McGarry SA, Trivette SL, Briggs JP, et al
. Health care - Associated bloodstream infections in adults: A reason to change the accepted definition of community-acquired infections. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:791-7.
Wu CJ, Lee HC, Lee NY, Shih HI, Ko NY, Wang LR, et al
. Predominance of Gram-negative Bacilli
and increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial bloodstream infections at a university hospital in southern Taiwan, 1996-2003. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2006;39:135-43.
Couto RC, Pedrosa TM, Tofani Cde P, Pedroso ER. Risk factors for nosocomial infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:571-5.
Chernov VN, Belik BM, Poliak AI, Vasil'eva LI, Bragina LE. The immuno-microbiological characteristics of the small intestine and the translocation of the enteral microflora in acute intestinal obstruction. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1999;4:70-4.
Willemsen I, Mooij M, van der Wiel M, Bogaers D, van der Bijl M, Savelkoul P, et al
. Highly resistant microorganisms in a teaching hospital: The role of horizontal spread in a setting of endemicity. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:1110-7.
Bennett RG. Diarrhea among residents of long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:397-404.
Diekema DJ, Beekmann SE, Chapin KC, Morel KA, Munson E, Doern GV. Epidemiology and outcome of nosocomial and community-onset bloodstream infection. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:3655-60.
Iaru¢ mov N, Evtimov R, Argirov D. The role of bacterial translocation and endotoxemia in pathogenesis of obturation ileus, caused by colorectal carcinoma. Limulus test - A method for quick diagnostics of endotoxemia. Khirurgiia (Sofiia) 2004;60:48-55.
Angus DC, Burgner D, Wunderink R, Mira JP, Gerlach H, Wiedermann CJ, et al
. The PIRO concept: P is for predisposition. Crit Care 2003;7:248-51.
Ghassemi S, Garcia-Tsao G. Prevention and treatment of infections in patients with cirrhosis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2007;21:77-93.
Lossa GR, Giordano Lerena R, Fernández LE, Vairetti J, Díaz C, Arcidiácono D, et al
. Prevalence of hospital infections in adult intensive care units in Argentina. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2008;24:324-30.
Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:551-81.
Diekema OJ, Edmond MB, Wallace SE, McClish DK. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: A three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:239-44.
Das RN, Chandrashekhar TS, Joshi HS, Gurung M, Shrestha N, Shivananda PG. Frequency and susceptibility profile of pathogens causing urinary tract infections at a tertiary care hospital in Western Nepal. Singapore Med J 2006;47:281-5.
Aoki Y, Iwata S, Shohji M, Kosaka S, Satoh J. Targeted bacteremia surveillance throughout a year - Comparison of community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2003;77:211-8.
Ali El-Din N, Sidhom I, Zamzam M, El-Mahalaway H. Blood stream infections in pediatric cancer patients. Epidemiology outcome analysis. J Egypt Natl Cancer Inst 2006;15:363-72.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]