Previous article Table of Contents  Next article

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 80-89

Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine


1 Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
2 Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne; Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
3 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, OH, USA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Siny Tsang
Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY
USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sja.SJA_203_17

Rights and Permissions
Date of Web Publication25-May-2017
 

  Abstract 


The task of developing a new questionnaire or translating an existing questionnaire into a different language might be overwhelming. The greatest challenge perhaps is to come up with a questionnaire that is psychometrically sound, and is efficient and effective for use in research and clinical settings. This article provides guidelines for the development and translation of questionnaires for application in medical fields, with a special emphasis on perioperative and pain medicine. We provide a framework to guide researchers through the various stages of questionnaire development and translation. To ensure that the questionnaires are psychometrically sound, we present a number of statistical methods to assess the reliability and validity of the questionnaires.

Keywords: Anesthesia; development; questionnaires; translation; validation


How to cite this article:
Tsang S, Royse CF, Terkawi AS. Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine. Saudi J Anaesth 2017;11, Suppl S1:80-9

How to cite this URL:
Tsang S, Royse CF, Terkawi AS. Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Dec 5];11, Suppl S1:80-9. Available from: https://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2017/11/5/80/207056




  Introduction Top


Questionnaires or surveys are widely used in perioperative and pain medicine research to collect quantitative information from both patients and health-care professionals. Data of interest could range from observable information (e.g., presence of lesion, mobility) to patients' subjective feelings of their current status (e.g., the amount of pain they feel, psychological status). Although using an existing questionnaire will save time and resources,[1] a questionnaire that measures the construct of interest may not be readily available, or the published questionnaire is not available in the language required for the targeted respondents. As a result, investigators may need to develop a new questionnaire or translate an existing one into the language of the intended respondents. Prior work has highlighted the wealth of literature available on psychometric principles, methodological concepts, and techniques regarding questionnaire development/translation and validation. To that end, this article is not meant to provide an exhaustive review of all the related statistical concepts and methods. Rather, this article aims to provide straightforward guidelines for the development or translation of questionnaires (or scales) for use in perioperative and pain medicine research for readers who may be unfamiliar with the process of questionnaire development and/or translation. Readers are recommended to consult the cited references to further examine these techniques for application.

This article is divided into two main sections. The first discusses issues that investigators should be aware of in developing or translating a questionnaire. The second section of this paper illustrates procedures to validate the questionnaire after the questionnaire is developed or translated. A model for the questionnaire development and translation process is presented in [Figure 1]. In this special issue of the Saudi journal of Anesthesia we presented multiple studies of development and validation of questionnaires in perioperative and pain medicine, we encourage readers to refer to them for practical experience.
Figure 1: Questionnaire development and translation processes

Click here to view



  Preliminary Considerations Top


It is crucial to identify the construct that is to be assessed with the questionnaire, as the domain of interest will determine what the questionnaire will measure. The next question is: How will the construct be operationalized? In other words, what types of behavior will be indicative of the domain of interest? Several approaches have been suggested to help with this process,[2] such as content analysis, review of research, critical incidents, direct observations, expert judgment, and instruction.

Once the construct of interest has been determined, it is important to conduct a literature review to identify if a previously validated questionnaire exists. A validated questionnaire refers to a questionnaire/scale that has been developed to be administered among the intended respondents. The validation processes should have been completed using a representative sample, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity. Examples of necessary validation processes can be found in the validation section of this paper. If no existing questionnaires are available, or none that are determined to be appropriate, it is appropriate to construct a new questionnaire. If a questionnaire exists, but only in a different language, the task is to translate and validate the questionnaire in the new language.


  Developing a Questionnaire Top


To construct a new questionnaire, a number of issues should be considered even before writing the questionnaire items.

Identify the dimensionality of the construct

Many constructs are multidimensional, meaning that they are composed of several related components. To fully assess the construct, one may consider developing subscales to assess the different components of the construct. Next, are all the dimensions equally important? or are some more important than others? If the dimensions are equally important, one can assign the same weight to the questions (e.g., by summing or taking the average of all the items). If some dimensions are more important than others, it may not be reasonable to assign the same weight to the questions. Rather, one may consider examining the results from each dimension separately.

Determine the format in which the questionnaire will be administered

Will the questionnaire be self-administered or administered by a research/clinical staff? This decision depends, in part, on what the questionnaire intends to measure. If the questionnaire is designed to measure catastrophic thinking related to pain, respondents may be less likely to respond truthfully if a research/clinical staff asked the questions, whereas they may be more likely to respond truthfully if they are allowed to complete the questionnaire on their own. If the questionnaire is designed to measure patients' mobility after surgery, respondents may be more likely to overreport the amount of mobility in an effort to demonstrate recovery. To obtain a more accurate measure of mobility after surgery, it may be preferable to obtain objective ratings by clinical staff.

If respondents are to complete the questionnaire by themselves, the items need to be written in a way that can be easily understood by the majority of the respondents, generally about Grade 6 reading level.[3] If the questionnaire is to be administered to young respondents or respondents with cognitive impairment, the readability level of the items should be lowered. Questionnaires intended for children should take into consideration the cognitive stages of young people [4] (e.g., pictorial response choices may be more appropriate, such as pain faces to assess pain [5]).

Determine the item format

Will the items be open ended or close ended? Questions that are open ended allow respondents to elaborate upon their responses. As more detailed information may be obtained using open-ended questions, these items are best suited for situations in which investigators wish to gather more information about a specific domain. However, these responses are often more difficult to code and score, which increases the difficulty of summarizing individuals' responses. If multiple coders are included, researchers have to address the additional issue of inter-rater reliability.

Questions that are close ended provide respondents a limited number of response options. Compared to open-ended questions, these items are easier to administer and analyze. On the other hand, respondents may not be able to clarify their responses, and their responses may be influenced by the response options provided.

If close-ended items are to be used, should multiple-choice, Likert-type scales, true/false, or other close-ended formats be used? How many response options should be available? If a Likert-type scale is to be adopted, what scale anchors are to be used to indicate the degree of agreement (e.g., strongly agree, agree, neither, disagree, strongly degree), frequency of an event (e.g., almost never, once in a while, sometimes, often, almost always), or other varying options? To make use of participants' responses for subsequent statistical analyses, researchers should keep in mind that items should be scaled to generate sufficient variance among the intended respondents.[6],[7]

Item development

A number of guidelines have been suggested for writing items.[7] Items should be simple, short, and written in language familiar to the target respondents. The perspective should be consistent across items; items that assess affective responses (e.g., anxiety, depression) should not be mixed with those that assess behavior (e.g., mobility, cognitive functioning).[8] Items should assess only a single issue. Items that address more than one issue, or “double-barreled” items (e.g., “My daily activities and mood are affected by my pain.”), should not be used. Avoid leading questions as they may result in biased responses. Items that all participants would respond similarly (e.g., “I would like to reduce my pain.”) should not be used, as the small variance generated will provide limited information about the construct being assessed. [Table 1] summarizes important tips on writing questions.
Table 1: Tips on writing questions[15],[16]

Click here to view


The issue of whether reverse-scored items should be used remains debatable. Since reverse-scored items are negatively worded, it has been argued that the inclusion of these items may reduce response set bias.[9] On the other hand, others have found a negative impact on the psychometric properties of scales that included negatively worded items.[10] In recent years, an increasing amount of literature reports problems with reverse-scored items.[11],[12],[13],[14] Researchers who decide to include negatively worded items should take extra steps to ensure that the items are interpreted as intended by the respondents, and that the reverse-coded items have similar psychometric properties as the other regularly coded items.[7]

Determine the intended length of questionnaire

There is no rule of thumb for the number of items that make up a questionnaire. The questionnaire should contain sufficient items to measure the construct of interest, but not be so long that respondents experience fatigue or loss of motivation in completing the questionnaire.[17],[18] Not only should a questionnaire possess the most parsimonious (i.e., simplest) structure,[19] but it also should consist of items that adequately represent the construct of interest to minimize measurement error.[20] Although a simple structure of questionnaire is recommended, a large pool of items is needed in the early stages of the questionnaire's development as many of these items might be discarded throughout the development process.[7]

Review and revise initial pool of items

After the initial pool of questionnaire items are written, qualified experts should review the items. Specifically, the items should be reviewed to make sure they are accurate, free of item construction problems, and grammatically correct. The reviewers should, to the best of their ability, ensure that the items do not contain content that may be perceived as offensive or biased by a particular subgroup of respondents.

Preliminary pilot testing

Before conducting a pilot test of the questionnaire on the intended respondents, it is advisable to test the questionnaire items on a small sample (about 30–50)[21] of respondents.[17] This is an opportunity for the questionnaire developer to know if there is confusion about any items, and whether respondents have suggestions for possible improvements of the items. One can also get a rough idea of the response distribution to each item, which can be informative in determining whether there is enough variation in the response to justify moving forward with a large-scale pilot test. Feasibility and the presence of floor (almost all respondents scored near the bottom) or ceiling effects (almost all respondents scored near the top) are important determinants of items that are included or rejected at this stage. Although it is possible that participants' responses to questionnaires may be affected by question order,[22],[23],[24] this issue should be addressed only after the initial questionnaire has been validated. The questionnaire items should be revised upon reviewing the results of the preliminary pilot testing. This process may be repeated a few times before finalizing the final draft of the questionnaire.

Summary

So far, we highlighted the major steps that need to be undertaken when constructing a new questionnaire. Researchers should be able to clearly link the questionnaire items to the theoretical construct they intend to assess. Although such associations may be obvious to researchers who are familiar with the specific topic, they may not be apparent to other readers and reviewers. To develop a questionnaire with good psychometric properties that can subsequently be applied in research or clinical practice, it is crucial to invest the time and effort to ensure that the items adequately assess the construct of interest.


  Translating a Questionnaire Top


The following section summarizes the guidelines for translating a questionnaire into a different language.

Forward translation

The initial translation from the original language to the target language should be made by at least two independent translators.[25],[26] Preferably, the bilingual translators should be translating the questionnaire into their mother tongue, to better reflect the nuances of the target language.[27] It is recommended that one translator be aware of the concepts the questionnaire intend to measure, to provide a translation that more closely resembles the original instrument. It is suggested that a naïve translator, who is unaware of the objective of the questionnaire, produce the second translation so that subtle differences in the original questionnaire may be detected.[25],[26] Discrepancies between the two (or more) translators can be discussed and resolved between the original translators, or with the addition of an unbiased, bilingual translator who was not involved in the previous translations.

Backward translation

The initial translation should be independently back-translated (i.e., translate back from the target language into the original language) to ensure the accuracy of the translation. Misunderstandings or unclear wordings in the initial translations may be revealed in the back-translation.[25] As with the forward translation, the backward translation should be performed by at least two independent translators, preferably translating into their mother language (the original language).[26] To avoid bias, back-translators should preferably not be aware of the intended concepts the questionnaire measures.[25]

Expert committee

Constituting an expert committee is suggested to produce the prefinal version of the translation.[25] Members of the committee should include experts who are familiar with the construct of interest, a methodologist, both the forward and backward translators, and if possible, developers of the original questionnaires. The expert committee will need to review all versions of the translations and determine whether the translated and original versions achieve semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence.[25],[28] Any discrepancies will need to be resolved, and members of the expert committee will need to reach a consensus on all items to produce a prefinal version of the translated questionnaire. If necessary, the process of translation and back-translation can be repeated.

Preliminary pilot testing

As with developing a new questionnaire, the prefinal version of the translated questionnaire should be pilot tested on a small sample (about 30–50)[21] of the intended respondents.[25],[26] After completing the translated questionnaire, the respondent is asked (verbally by an interviewer or via an open-ended question) to elaborate what they thought each questionnaire item and their corresponding response meant. This approach allows the investigator to make sure that the translated items retained the same meaning as the original items, and to ensure there is no confusion regarding the translated questionnaire. This process may be repeated a few times to finalize the final translated version of the questionnaire.

Summary

In this section, we provided a template for translating an existing questionnaire into a different language. Considering that most questionnaires were initially developed in one language (e.g., English when developed in English-speaking countries [25]), translated versions of the questionnaires are needed for researchers who intend to collect data among respondents who speak other languages. To compare responses across populations of different language and/or culture, researchers need to make sure that the questionnaires in different languages are assessing the equivalent construct with an equivalent metric. Although the translation process is time consuming and costly, it is the best method to ensure that a translated measure is equivalent to the original questionnaire.[28]


  Validating a Questionnaire Top


Initial validation

After the new or translated questionnaire items pass through preliminary pilot testing and subsequent revisions, it is time to conduct a pilot test among the intended respondents for initial validation. In this pilot test, the final version of the questionnaire is administered to a large representative sample of respondents for whom the questionnaire is intended. If the pilot test is conducted for small samples, the relatively large sampling errors may reduce the statistical power needed to validate the questionnaire.[2]

Reliability

The reliability of a questionnaire can be considered as the consistency of the survey results. As measurement error is present in content sampling, changes in respondents, and differences across raters, the consistency of a questionnaire can be evaluated using its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability, respectively.

Internal consistency

Internal consistency reflects the extent to which the questionnaire items are inter-correlated, or whether they are consistent in measurement of the same construct. Internal consistency is commonly estimated using the coefficient alpha,[29] also known as Cronbach's alpha. Given a questionnaire x, with k number of items, alpha (α) can be computed as:



Where, σi2 is the variance of item i, and σx2 is the total variance of the questionnaire.

Cronbach's alpha ranges from 0 to 1 (when some items are negatively correlated with other items in the questionnaire, it is possible to have negative values of Cronbach's alpha). When reverse-scored items are [incorrectly] not reverse scored, it can be easily remedied by correctly scoring the items. However, if a negative Cronbach's alpha is still obtained when all items are correctly scored, there are serious problems in the original design of the questionnaire), with higher values indicating that items are more strongly interrelated with one another. Cronbach's α = 0 indicates no internal consistency (i.e., none of the items are correlated with one another), whereas α = 1 reflects perfect internal consistency (i.e., all the items are perfectly correlated with one another). In practice, Cronbach's alpha of at least 0.70 has been suggested to indicate adequate internal consistency.[30] A low Cronbach's alpha value may be due to poor inter-relatedness between items; as such, items with low correlations with the questionnaire total score should be discarded or revised. As alpha is a function of the length of the questionnaire, alpha will increase with the number of items. In addition, alpha will increase if the variability of each item is increased. It is, therefore, possible to increase alpha by including more related items, or adding items that have more variability to the questionnaire. On the other hand, an alpha value that is too high (α ≥ 0.90) suggests that some questionnaire items may be redundant;[31] investigators may consider removing items that are essentially asking the same thing in multiple ways.

It is important to note that Cronbach's alpha is a property of the responses from a specific sample of respondents.[31] Investigators need to keep in mind that Cronbach's alpha is not “the” estimate of reliability for a questionnaire under all circumstances. Rather, the alpha value only indicates the extent to which the questionnaire is reliable for “a particular population of examinees.”[32] A questionnaire with excellent reliability with one sample may not necessarily have the same reliability in another. Therefore, the reliability of a questionnaire should be estimated each time the questionnaire is administered, including pilot testing and subsequent validation stages.

Test-retest reliability

Test-retest reliability refers to the extent to which individuals' responses to the questionnaire items remain relatively consistent across repeated administration of the same questionnaire or alternate questionnaire forms.[2] Provided the same individuals were administered the same questionnaires twice (or more), test-retest reliability can be evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) or the intraclass correlation coefficient.

Pearson's r between the two questionnaires' responses can be referred to as the coefficient of stability. A larger stability coefficient indicates stronger test-retest reliability, reflecting that measurement error of the questionnaire is less likely to be attributable to changes in the individuals' responses over time.

Test-retest reliability can be considered the stability of respondents' attributes; it is applicable to questionnaires that are designed to measure personality traits, interest, or attitudes that are relatively stable across time, such as anxiety and pain catastrophizing. If the questionnaires are constructed to measure transitory attributes, such as pain intensity and quality of recovery, test-retest reliability is not applicable as the changes in respondents' responses between assessments are reflected in the instability of their responses. Although test-retest reliability is sometimes reported for scales that are intended to assess constructs that change between administrations, researchers should be aware that test-retest reliability is not applicable and does not provide useful information about the questionnaires of interest. Researchers should also be critical when evaluating the reliability estimates reported in such studies.

An important question to consider in estimating test-retest reliability is how much time should lapse between questionnaire administrations? If the duration between time 1 and time 2 is too short, individuals may remember their responses in time 1, which may overestimate the test-retest reliability. Respondents, especially those recovering from major surgery, may experience fatigue if the retest is administered shortly after the first administration, which may underestimate the test-retest reliability. On the other hand, if there is a long period of time between questionnaire administrations, individuals' responses may change due to other factors (e.g., a respondent may be taking pain management medications to treat chronic pain condition). Unfortunately, there is no single answer. The duration should be long enough to allow the effects of memory to fade and to prevent fatigue, but not so long as to allow changes to take place that may affect the test-retest reliability estimate.[17]

Inter-rater reliability

For questionnaires in which multiple raters complete the same instrument for each examinee (e.g., a checklist of behavior/symptoms), the extent to which raters are consistent in their observations across the same group of examinees can be evaluated. This consistency is referred to as the inter-rater reliability, or inter-rater agreement, and can be estimated using the kappa statistic.[33] Suppose two clinicians independently rated the same group of patients on their mobility after surgery (e.g., 0 = needs help of 2+ people; 1 = needs help of 1 person; 2 = independent), kappa (к) can be computed as follows:



Where, Po is the observed proportion of observations in which the two raters agree, and Pe is the expected proportion of observations in which the two raters agree by chance. Accordingly, к is the proportion of agreement between the two raters, after factoring out the proportion of agreement by chance. к ranges from 0 to 1, where к = 0 indicates all chance agreements and к =1 represents perfect agreement between the two raters. Others have suggested к = 0 as no agreement, к = 0.01 − 0.20 as poor agreement, к = 0.21 − 0.40 as slight agreement, к = 0.41 − 0.60 as fair agreement, к = 0.61 − 0.80 as good agreement, к = 0.81 − 0.92 as very good agreement, and к = 0.93 − 1 as excellent agreement.[34],[35] If more than two raters are used, an extension of Cohen's к statistic is available to compute the inter-rater reliability across multiple raters.[36]

Validity

The validity of a questionnaire is determined by analyzing whether the questionnaire measures what it is intended to measure. In other words, are the inferences and conclusions made based on the results of the questionnaire (i.e., test scores) valid?[37] Two major types of validity should be considered when validating a questionnaire: content validity and construct validity.

Content validity

Content validity refers to the extent to which the items in a questionnaire are representative of the entire theoretical construct the questionnaire is designed to assess.[17] Although the construct of interest determines which items are written and/or selected in the questionnaire development/translation phase, content validity of the questionnaire should be evaluated after the initial form of the questionnaire is available.[2] The process of content validation is particularly crucial in the development of a new questionnaire.

A panel of experts who are familiar with the construct that the questionnaire is designed to measure should be tasked with evaluating the content validity of the questionnaire. The experts judge, as a panel, whether the questionnaire items are adequately measuring the construct intended to assess, and whether the items are sufficient to measure the domain of interest. Several approaches to quantify the judgment of content validity across experts are also available, such as the content validity ratio [38] and content validation form.[39],[40] Nonetheless, as the process of content validation depends heavily on how well the panel of experts can assess the extent to which the construct of interest is operationalized, the selection of appropriate experts is crucial to ensure that content validity is evaluated adequately. Example items to assess content validity include:[41]

  • The questions were clear and easy
  • The questions covered all the problem areas with your pain
  • You would like the use of this questionnaire for future assessments
  • The questionnaire lacks important questions regarding your pain
  • Some of the questions violate your privacy.


A concept that is related to content validity is face validity. Face validity refers to the degree to which the respondents or laypersons judge the questionnaire items to be valid. Such judgment is based less on the technical components of the questionnaire items, but rather on whether the items appear to be measuring a construct that is meaningful to the respondents. Although this is the weakest way to establish the validity of a questionnaire, face validity may motivate respondents to answer more truthfully. For example, if patients perceive a quality of recovery questionnaire to be evaluating how well they are recovering from surgery, they may be more likely to respond in ways that reflect their recovery status.

Construct validity

Construct validity is the most important concept in evaluating a questionnaire that is designed to measure a construct that is not directly observable (e.g., pain, quality of recovery). If a questionnaire lacks construct validity, it will be difficult to interpret results from the questionnaire, and inferences cannot be drawn from questionnaire responses to a behavior domain. The construct validity of a questionnaire can be evaluated by estimating its association with other variables (or measures of a construct) with which it should be correlated positively, negatively, or not at all.[42] In practice, the questionnaire of interest, as well as the preexisting instruments that measure similar and dissimilar constructs, is administered to the same groups of individuals. Correlation matrices are then used to examine the expected patterns of associations between different measures of the same construct, and those between a questionnaire of a construct and other constructs. It has been suggested that correlation coefficients of 0.1 should be considered as small, 0.3 as moderate, and 0.5 as large.[43]

For instance, suppose a new scale is developed to assess pain among hospitalized patients. To provide evidence of construct validity for this new pain scale, we can examine how well patients' responses on the new scale correlate with the preexisting instruments that also measure pain. This is referred to as convergent validity. One would expect strong correlations between the new questionnaire and the existing measures of the same construct, since they are measuring the same theoretical construct.

Alternatively, the extent to which patients' responses on the new pain scale correlate with instruments that measure unrelated constructs, such as mobility or cognitive function, can be assessed. This is referred to as divergent validity. As pain is theoretically dissimilar to the constructs of mobility or cognitive function, we would expect zero, or very weak, correlation between the new pain questionnaire and instruments that assess mobility or cognitive function. [Table 2] describes different validation types and important definitions.
Table 2: Questionnaire-related terminology[16],[44],[45]

Click here to view


Subsequent validation

The process described so far defines the steps for initial validation. However, the usefulness of the scale is the ability to discriminate between different cohorts in the domain of interest. It is advised that several studies investigating different cohorts or interventions should be conducted to identify whether the scale can discriminate between groups. Ideally, these studies should have clearly defined outcomes where the changes in the domain of interest are well known. For example, in subsequent validation of the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale, four studies were constructed to show the ability to discriminate recovery and cognition in different cohorts of participants (mixed cohort, orthopedics, and otolaryngology), as well as a human volunteer study to calibrate the cognitive domain.[46],[47],[48],[49]

Sample size

Guidelines for the respondent-to-item ratio ranged from 5:1[50] (i.e., fifty respondents for a 10-item questionnaire), 10:1,[30] to 15:1 or 30:1.[51] Others suggested that sample sizes of 50 should be considered as very poor, 100 as poor, 200 as fair, 300 as good, 500 as very good, and 1000 or more as excellent.[52] Given the variation in the types of questionnaire being used, there are no absolute rules for the sample size needed to validate a questionnaire.[53] As larger samples are always better than smaller samples, it is recommended that investigators utilize as large a sample size as possible. The respondent-to-item ratios can be utilized to further strengthen the rationale for the large sample size when necessary.

Other considerations

Even though data collection using questionnaires is relatively easy, researchers should be cognizant about the necessary approvals that should be obtained prior to beginning the research project. Considering the differences in regulations and requirements in different countries, agencies, and institutions, researchers are advised to consult the research ethics committee at their agencies and/or institutions regarding the necessary approval needed and additional considerations that should be addressed.


  Conclusion Top


In this review, we provided guidelines on how to develop, validate, and translate a questionnaire for use in perioperative and pain medicine. The development and translation of a questionnaire requires investigators' thorough consideration of issues relating to the format of the questionnaire and the meaning and appropriateness of the items. Once the development or translation stage is completed, it is important to conduct a pilot test to ensure that the items can be understood and correctly interpreted by the intended respondents. The validation stage is crucial to ensure that the questionnaire is psychometrically sound. Although developing and translating a questionnaire is no easy task, the processes outlined in this article should enable researchers to end up with questionnaires that are efficient and effective in the target populations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Siny Tsang, PhD, was supported by the research training grant 5-T32-MH 13043 from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Boynton PM, Greenhalgh T. Selecting, designing, and developing your questionnaire. BMJ 2004;328:1312-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Crocker L, Algina J. Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Davis TC, Mayeaux EJ, Fredrickson D, Bocchini JA Jr., Jackson RH, Murphy PW. Reading ability of parents compared with reading level of pediatric patient education materials. Pediatrics 1994;93:460-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Bell A. Designing and testing questionnaires for children. J Res Nurs 2007;12:461-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Wong DL, Baker CM. Pain in children: Comparison of assessment scales. Okla Nurse 1988;33:8.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Stone E. Research Methods in Organizational Behavior. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman; 1978.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Hinkin TR. A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organ Res Methods 1998;2:104-21.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Harrison DA, McLaughlin ME. Cognitive processes in self-report responses: Tests of item context effects in work attitude measures. J Appl Psychol 1993;78:129-40.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.
Price JL, Mueller CW. Handbook of Organizational Measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pitman; 1986.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Harrison DA, McLaughlin ME. Exploring the Cognitive Processes Underlying Responses to Self-Report Instruments: Effects of Item Content on Work Attitude Measures. Academy of Management Annual Meetings; 1991. p. 310-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Embretson SE, Reise SP. Item Response Theory for Psychologists. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Lindwall M, Barkoukis V, Grano C, Lucidi F, Raudsepp L, Liukkonen J, et al. Method effects: The problem with negatively versus positively keyed items. J Pers Assess 2012;94:196-204.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]    
13.
Stansbury JP, Ried LD, Velozo CA. Unidimensionality and bandwidth in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. J Pers Assess 2006;86:10-22.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.
Tsang S, Salekin RT, Coffey CA, Cox J. A comparison of self-report measures of psychopathy among non-forensic samples using item response theory analyses. Psychol Assess. [In press].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Leung WC. How to design a questionnaire. Stud BMJ 2001;9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Artino AR Jr., La Rochelle JS, Dezee KJ, Gehlbach H. Developing questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No 87. Med Teach 2014;36:463-74.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Schultz KS, Whitney DJ. Measurement Theory in Action: Case Studies and Exercises. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Schmitt NW, Stults DM. Factors defined by negatively keyed items: The results of careless respondents? Appl Psychol Meas 1985;9:367-73.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Thurstone LL. Multiple-Factor Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1947.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Churchill GA. A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. J Mark Res 1979;16:64-73.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Perneger TV, Courvoisier DS, Hudelson PM, Gayet-Ageron A. Sample size for pre-tests of questionnaires. Qual Life Res 2015;24:147-51.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]    
22.
Bowling A, Windsor J. The effects of question order and response-choice on self-rated health status in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62:81-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]    
23.
Lee S, Schwarz N. Question context and priming meaning of health: Effect on differences in self-rated health between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Am J Public Health 2014;104:179-85.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Schwarz N. Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. Am Psychol 1999;54:93-105.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Guillemin F, Bombardier C, Beaton D. Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol 1993;46:1417-32.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]    
26.
Beaton D, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz M. Recommendations for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the DASH and Quick DASH Outcome Measures. Toronto: Institute for Work and Health; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Hendricson WD, Russell IJ, Prihoda TJ, Jacobson JM, Rogan A, Bishop GD, et al. Development and initial validation of a dual-language English-Spanish format for the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales. Arthritis Rheum 1989;32:1153-9.  Back to cited text no. 27
[PUBMED]    
28.
Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2000;25:3186-91.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951;16:297-334.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Nunnally J. Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1978.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Streiner DL. Starting at the beginning: An introduction to coefficient alpha and internal consistency. J Pers Assess 2003;80:99-103.  Back to cited text no. 31
[PUBMED]    
32.
Wilkinson L, the Task Force on Statistical Inference. Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations. Am Psychol 1999;54:594-604.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas 1960;20:37-46.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Dawson B, Trapp RG. Basic and Clinical Biostatistics. 3rd ed. Norwalk, Conn.: Lange Medical Books; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Grootscholten C, Bajema IM, Florquin S, Steenbergen EJ, Peutz-Kootstra CJ, Goldschmeding R, et al. Inter-observer agreement of scoring of histopathological characteristics and classification of lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:223-30.  Back to cited text no. 35
[PUBMED]    
36.
Berry KJ, Mielke PW. A generalization of Cohen's kappa agreement measure to interval measurement and multiple raters. Educ Psychol Meas 1988;48:921-33.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Murphy KR, Davidshofer CO. Psychological Testing: Principles and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Pers Psychol 1975;28:563-75.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Barrett RS. Content validation form. Public Pers Manage 1992;21:41-52.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Barrett RS, editor. Content validation form. In: Fair Employment Strategies in Human Resource Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books/Greenwood; 1996. p. 47-56.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Alnahhal A, May S. Validation of the arabic version of the quebec back pain disability Scale. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012;37:E1645-50.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Cronbach L, Meehl P. Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychol Bull 1955;52:281-302.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Anthoine E, Moret L, Regnault A, Sébille V, Hardouin JB. Sample size used to validate a scale: A review of publications on newly-developed patient reported outcomes measures. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2014;12:176.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Reeve BB, Wyrwich KW, Wu AW, Velikova G, Terwee CB, Snyder CF, et al. ISOQOL recommends minimum standards for patient-reported outcome measures used in patient-centered outcomes and comparative effectiveness research. Qual Life Res 2013;22:1889-905.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Newman S, Wilkinson DJ, Royse CF. Assessment of early cognitive recovery after surgery using the Post-operative Quality of Recovery Scale. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2014;58:185-91.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Royse CF, Newman S, Williams Z, Wilkinson DJ. A human volunteer study to identify variability in performance in the cognitive domain of the postoperative quality of recovery scale. Anesthesiology 2013;119:576-81.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Royse CF, Williams Z, Purser S, Newman S. Recovery after nasal surgery vs. tonsillectomy: Discriminant validation of the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2014;58:345-51.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Royse CF, Williams Z, Ye G, Wilkinson D, De Steiger R, Richardson M, et al. Knee surgery recovery: Post-operative Quality of Recovery Scale comparison of age and complexity of surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2014;58:660-7.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Gorusch RL. Factor Analysis. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1983.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Pedhazur RJ. Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research: Explanation and Prediction. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Comfrey AL, Lee HB. A First Course in Factor Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Osborne JW, Costello AB. Sample size and subject to item ratio in principal components analysis. Pract Assess Res Eval 2004;9:8.  Back to cited text no. 53
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Application areas and effects of aquatic therapy WATSU – A survey among practitioners
Agnes M. Schitter, Lorenz Radlinger, Nicolas Kurpiers, Peter Frei
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2022; 46: 101513
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Preliminary validation of the European Portuguese version of the Robotic Social Attributes Scale ( RoSAS )
Raquel Oliveira, Patrícia Arriaga, Steven J. Stroessner, Ana Paiva
Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Validation of the Actually Received Support Scale for Chinese Adolescents Experiencing School Bullying
Jianli Xing, Ted C. T. Fong, Rainbow T. H. Ho
Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2021; 30(7): 1712
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 The Association of Social Determinants of Health with Somali Refugee Mother–Child Caries
Priscilla M. Flynn, Ashley Petersen, Jodie Entinger, Abdulkadir Shire
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. 2021; 23(3): 615
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Independent Psychometric Evaluation and Predictive Utility of The Social Anxiety Questionnaire
Jacob D. Kraft, DeMond M. Grant, Kaitlyn M. Nagel, Danielle E. Deros, Kristen E. Frosio, Danielle L. Taylor, Evan J. White
Psychiatric Quarterly. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSISQ-15): Validation and Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Greek Version in MS Patients
M. Tzitzika, C. C. Daoultzis, C. Konstantinidis, P. Kordoutis
Sexuality and Disability. 2021; 39(3): 495
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Coastal residents’ attitudes toward offshore oil and gas drilling in China
Mo Chen, Pim Martens
The Extractive Industries and Society. 2021; 8(3): 100942
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Reliability and validation of the Arabic version of the Conditions for Workplace Effectiveness Questionnaire-II
Wafa’a F. Ta’an, Mohammed M. Al-Hammouri, Jehad A. Rababah, Mohammad M. Suliman
International Journal of Nursing Sciences. 2021; 8(2): 215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Questionnaire translation and questionnaire validation are not the same
B. Kozanhan, M. Yildiz
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 2021; 45: 165
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 A survey of patient blood management for patients undergoing cardiac surgery in nine European countries
Andrew Klein, Seema Agarwal, Bernard Cholley, Jens Fassl, Michael Griffin, Timo Kaakinen, Zineb Mzallassi, Patrick Paulus, Steffen Rex, Martin Siegemund, Annewil van Saet
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2021; 72: 110311
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Validation psychométrique d’un Questionnaire d’Évaluation de la Perception et de l’Adaptation au Handicap Visuel chez l’Adulte (QUEPAHVA)
C. Heren-Le Bastard, A. Bernard, R. Fliss, S. Legouvello, P. Allain
Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie. 2021; 44(1): 24
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 A quality-of-life questionnaire for heavy menstrual bleeding in Thai women receiving oral antithrombotics: Assessment of the translated Menstrual Bleeding Questionnaire
Tinaram Rodpetch, Jittima Manonai, Pantep Angchaisuksiri, Kochawan Boonyawat
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2021; 5(7)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Analgesic drug use of recreational and competitive badminton players: Starting points for prevention
Elke Ochsmann, Caroline Koinzer
Translational Sports Medicine. 2021; 4(4): 458
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Development and validation of a cognitive, affective and behaviour questionnaire on pet-associated zoonotic diseases (CAB-ZDQ)
Teresa Sui Mien Yong, Albeny Joslyn Panting, Nurashma Juatan, Komathi Perialathan, Masitah Ahmad, Nor Haryati Ahmad Sanusi, Latiffah Hassan, Rohani Jahis, Norita Shamsudin, Siew Lee Yap, Nur Izzati Norshamsul, Maryam Pisol, Mohammad Zabri Johari
Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021; 7(5): 1558
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Postoperative inguinal pain and disability after Lichtenstein versus ONSTEP hernia repair: analysis of responses to the inguinal pain questionnaire in Spanish
Jorge Aguilar-García, Rodrigo Villafuerte-Fernandez, Perla I. Ntezes-Hidalgo, Jose A. Meade-Aguilar, Jose L. Ramirez-GarciaLuna, Mario A. Martinez-Jimenez
Surgery Today. 2021; 51(5): 703
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Turkish version of the faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf): translation, reliability, and validity
Ipek Arslan, Sema Aydinoglu
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Biological therapy in rheumatoid vasculitis: a systematic review
Débora Patrícia Alves de Cerqueira, Ana Luisa Souza Pedreira, Marcelo Gomes de Cerqueira, Mittermayer Barreto Santiago
Clinical Rheumatology. 2021; 40(5): 1717
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Information before discharge in geriatric patients in Italy: cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient Continuity of Care Questionnaire
Gabriella Facchinetti, Michela Piredda, Davide Ausili, Veronica Angaroni, Beatrice Albanesi, Anna Marchetti, Stefania Di Mauro, Maria Grazia De Marinis
European Journal of Ageing. 2021; 18(1): 99
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Orientations toward ‘people’ and ‘things’ are associated with nature connectedness in a representative sample of the French adult population
Anne-Claire Maurice, Anne-Caroline Prévot, Carmen Bessa-Gomes, Emmanuelle Baudry
Sustainability Science. 2021; 16(5): 1489
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 The reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis-31 (QUALEFFO-31)
Bugra Ince, Okan Kucukakkas
Archives of Osteoporosis. 2021; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Validity and reliability of the Lubben Social Network Scale-Revised (LSNS-R) on older adults in Turkey
Nilgün Kuru Alici, Bilge Kalanlar
Current Psychology. 2021; 40(1): 21
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Translation and Validation of Shame and Stigma Scale for Head and Neck Cancer into the Hindi Language
Atul Kumar Goyal, Jaimanti Bakshi, Naresh K. Panda, Rakesh Kapoor, Dharam Vir, Krishan Kumar, Pankaj Aneja, Balwinder Singh, Meenu Gupta, Sumittar Singh Walia
Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Related Public-Health Measures on Training Behaviours of Individuals Previously Participating in Resistance Training: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study
James Steele, Patroklos Androulakis-Korakakis, Luke Carlson, David Williams, Stuart Phillips, Dave Smith, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Richard Winett, Takashi Abe, Stéphane Dufour, Martino V. Franchi, Fabio Sarto, Tommy R. Lundberg, Paulo Gentil, Thue Kvorning, Jürgen Giessing, Milan Sedliak, Antonio Paoli, Fiona Spotswood, Alex Lucas, James P. Fisher
Sports Medicine. 2021; 51(7): 1561
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 A systems approach to investigating non-functionality in rural water schemes: a case study
Mduduzi Innocent Shongwe, Sabelo Dlamini
Sustainable Water Resources Management. 2021; 7(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 A Hybrid Method for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures
Atul Kumar Goyal, Jaimanti Bakshi, Naresh K Panda, Rakesh Kapoor, Dharam Vir, Krishan Kumar, Pankaj Aneja, Balwinder Singh, Meenu Gupta, Sumittar Singh Walia
International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology. 2021; 6(1): 45
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 The Use of Hypnotics for Insomnia Disorder in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Patients’ Experiences and Perceptions
Ali M. Dobia, Kath M. Ryan, Ahmed S. BaHammam, Mohammed H. Abutaleb, Rawaah Y. Alwadani, Alexander D. Edwards
Sleep and Vigilance. 2021; 5(2): 235
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 British Soccer Academy Personnel Perceive Psychological and Technical/Tactical Attributes as the Most Important Contributors to Development
Rich J. Kite, Mark R. Noon, Rhys Morris, Peter Mundy, Neil D. Clarke
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 A Weighted Scoring System Based on Preoperative and Long-Term Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to Guide Timing of Knee Arthroplasty
Yong Zhi Khow, Ming Han Lincoln Liow, Zhi Guang Felix Yeoh, Jerry Yongqiang Chen, Ngai Nung Lo, Seng Jin Yeo
The Journal of Arthroplasty. 2021; 36(12): 3894
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Validation of the Italian version of the ROSIER scale for stroke patients at triage
Stefano Terzoni, Anne Destrebecq, Francesca Modaffari, Fabiano Prendin, Paolo Ferrara
Australasian Emergency Care. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Development of the Comprehensive Pain Assessment Tool Short Form for Chronic Pancreatitis: Validity and Reliability Testing
Louise Kuhlmann, Keith Teo, Søren Schou Olesen, Anna Edwards Phillips, Mahya Faghih, Natalie Tuck, Elham Afghani, Vikesh K. Singh, Dhiraj Yadav, John A. Windsor, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Quality of life in patients and in family members of those receiving home parenteral support with intestinal failure: A systematic review
Anne Marie Sowerbutts, Debra Jones, Simon Lal, Sorrel Burden
Clinical Nutrition. 2021; 40(5): 3210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Evaluating the factors influencing purchase intention of electric vehicles in households owning conventional vehicles
V. Vijai Krishnan, Bino I. Koshy
Case Studies on Transport Policy. 2021; 9(3): 1122
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Translation and Cultural Validation of the WERF EPHect Endometriosis Patient Questionnaire into Canadian French
Evan Dimentberg, Claire Cardaillac, Evelyne Richard, Anne-Sophie Plante, Sarah Maheux-Lacroix
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2021; 43(7): 817
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Validation of the Family Health Behavior Scale for the Brazilian population
Luiza Tweedie Preto, Camila H. Scarpatto, Laura Lessa Gaudie Ley, Carolina Silveira, Margareth Rodrigues Salerno, Jennette Palcic Moreno, Stela Maris de Jezus Castro, Linda Booij, Rita Mattiello
Jornal de Pediatria. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Evaluating quality of patient-reported outcome measures in patients with hypospadias
V.P. Bhatia, M.E. Hilliard, P.F. Austin, A.G. Mittal
Journal of Pediatric Urology. 2021; 17(1): 50
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 The Future of Sleep Measurements
Erna Sif Arnardottir, Anna Sigridur Islind, María Óskarsdóttir
Sleep Medicine Clinics. 2021; 16(3): 447
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Development, translation, and validation of a bilingual questionnaire on unused medications in homes
Mutaseim Makki, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali, Ahmed Awaisu, Hiam Chemaitelly, Moza Al Hail, Walid Mohammed ElMotasim, Mohamed Yousif Mohamed Ali Taha, Noriya Mohd J Al-Khuzaei, Gamila Salama, Abdulrouf Pallivalapila, Wessam El Kassem, Binny Thomas
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2021; 29(7): 648
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Towards a reconsideration of the use of agree-disagree questions in measuring subjective evaluations
Jennifer Dykema, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Dana Garbarski, Nadia Assad, Steven Blixt
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Self-concept and Engagement in LiFe (SELF): A waitlist-controlled pilot study of a novel psychological intervention to target illness engulfment in enduring schizophrenia and related psychoses
Susanna Konsztowicz, Casandra Roy Gelencser, Catherine Otis, Norbert Schmitz, Martin Lepage
Schizophrenia Research. 2021; 228: 567
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 An Assessment of the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Toward Standard Precautions Among Health Workers From a Hospital in Northern Cyprus
Gulifeiya Abuduxike, Songul Acar Vaizoglu, Ozen Asut, Sanda Cali
Safety and Health at Work. 2021; 12(1): 66
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Validity and reliability of an Arabic version of the Sleep Hygiene Index
Jad Costa, Samar Helou, Ghassan Sleilaty, Tarek Costa, Jeanine El Helou
Sleep Medicine. 2021; 80: 260
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Motives and competitive assets for internationalization: a comparison between emerging and developed economy international construction contracting firms
Ahsen Maqsoom, Imran Arif, Khuram Shafi, Muhammad Umer, Tahira Nazir, Samina Nawab
Applied Economics. 2021; 53(22): 2539
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Why does the perception of street matter? A dimensional analysis of multisensory social and physical attributes shaping the perception of streets
Sherina Rezvanipour, Norhaslina Hassan, Amirhosein Ghaffarianhoseini, Mahmoud Danaee
Architectural Science Review. 2021; 64(4): 359
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Predictors of Job Satisfaction of Chinese Social Workers in Mainland China
Kitty Yuen-han Mo, Hannah Wai Ming Ho
Journal of Social Service Research. 2021; 47(6): 823
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Preferences and experiences regarding the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular advancement splints - a cross-sectional pilot survey
Johannes Spille, Jonas Conrad, André Sengebusch, Jörg Wiltfang, Christof Dörfer, Hendrik Naujokat
CRANIO®. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Assessment methods in sexual rehabilitation after stroke: a scoping review for rehabilitation professionals
Louis-Pierre Auger, Mélanie Aubertin, Myrian Grondin, Claudine Auger, Johanne Filiatrault, Annie Rochette
Disability and Rehabilitation. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Amharic version of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire in people with low back pain in Ethiopia
Mulugeta Bayisa Chala, Catherine Donnelly, Yemataw Wondie, Setareh Ghahari, Jordan Miller
Disability and Rehabilitation. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Influence of the ‘conventions approach’ on higher education in drama
Adam Cziboly, Mette Bøe Lyngstad, Sisi Zheng
NJ. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Quality of life assessment in paediatric cochlear implant recipients in South India: Parental assessment and correlation with rehabilitation scores using a bilingual quality of life assessment questionnaire
Senthil Vadivu Arumugam, Sunil Mathews, Vijaya Krishnan Paramasivan, Mohan Kameswaran
Cochlear Implants International. 2021; 22(3): 128
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Psychometric properties and validation of the Brief NORSCI safety perceptions and climate inventory in the Norwegian waste management industry
Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Jan Olav Christensen, Jan Shahid Emberland, Marit Skogstad, Stein Knardahl, Live Bakke Finne
Waste Management. 2021; 121: 87
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Acculturation and endocrine disrupting chemical-associated personal care product use among US-based foreign-born Chinese women of reproductive age
Veronica A. Wang, MyDzung T. Chu, Lucy Chie, Symielle A. Gaston, Chandra L. Jackson, Nicole Newendorp, Elanah Uretsky, Robin E. Dodson, Gary Adamkiewicz, Tamarra James-Todd
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology. 2021; 31(2): 224
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Rasch analysis for development and reduction of Symptom Questionnaire for Visual Dysfunctions (SQVD)
Mario Cantó-Cerdán, Pilar Cacho-Martínez, Francisco Lara-Lacárcel, Ángel García-Muñoz
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Evaluation of a Persian version of the Adelaide driving self-efficacy scale among Iranian older adults
Naser Havaei, Elham Lotfalinezhad, Haidar Nadrian, Shahab Papi, Sakineh Goljarian, Amir Ahmadi, Neda Nazaripanah, Mojtaba Mohammadi, Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad Taghi Badeleh, Devender Bhalla
Traffic Injury Prevention. 2021; 22(8): 611
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Reliability of the Norwegian version of PainDETECT: a test-retest study
Anette Melsom Myhre, Liv Inger Strand
European Journal of Physiotherapy. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Development and Evaluation of a Teamwork Improvement Program for Perioperative Patient Safety
Shinae AHN, Nam-Ju LEE
Journal of Nursing Research. 2021; 29(6): e181
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Psychological impact of COVID-19 on speech and language therapists working with adult dysphagia: A national survey
Rachel Rouse, Julie Regan
International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2021; 56(5): 1037
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Development and validation of a self-report measure of practical barriers to medication adherence: The medication practical barriers to adherence questionnaire (MPRAQ)
Amy Hai Yan Chan, Marcia Vervloet, Helen Lycett, Anne Brabers, Liset Dijk, Rob Horne
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2021; 87(11): 4197
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Leadership, management, quality, and innovation in organ donation: 2019 Kunming recommendations for One Belt & One Road countries
Chloe Ballesté, Aurora Navarro, José Luis Escalante, Arantxa Quiralte, Elisa Vera, Ana França, Danica Avsec, Alan Leitchman, Ricard Valero, Melania Istrate, María Paula Gómez, Minkang Zhou, Estephan Arredondo, Reginaldo Boni, José María Domínguez-Roldán, Hongtao Zhao, Haibo Wang, Miao Pu, Wei Lu, Li Li, Martí Manyalich
Clinical Transplantation. 2021; 35(10)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Revisiting Orstavik’s PAI score to produce a reliable and reproducible assessment of the outcomes of endodontic treatments in routine practice
Marjorie Zanini, Nicolas Decerle, Martine Hennequin, Pierre-Yves Cousson
European Journal of Dental Education. 2021; 25(2): 291
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Adaptation of the Quality of Life Adolescent Cleft Questionnaire for Spanish children and adolescents with cleft lip and/or palate
Ana Ruiz-Guillén, Carlos Suso-Ribera, Martín Romero-Maroto, Carmen Gallardo, Cecilia Peñacoba
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Development and validation of the Italian version of the ‘Parental Perceptions of Silver Diamine Fluoride Dental Color Changes’ questionnaire
Simone Bagattoni, Lisa Lardani, Maria Chiara Cappiello, Maria Rosaria Gatto, Marco Montevecchi, Gabriela Piana
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Convergent Validity of Suffering and Quality of Life as Measured by The Hidradenitis Suppurativa Quality of Life
C. Kursawe Larsen, R. Kjærsgaard Andersen, J. S. Kirby, J. Tan, D. M. L. Saunte, G. B. E. Jemec
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2021; 35(7): 1577
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 The Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire: Translation and Validation into Dutch
Roan L.M. Ploumen, Jorrit M. Duininck, Ronald E.G. Jonkman, Jitske W. Nolte, Alfred G. Becking
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2021; 32(4): 1448
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 The impact of organisational communication satisfaction on health care professionals' work engagement
Helmy Jameel Abu Dalal, Vimala Ramoo, Mei Chan Chong, Mahmoud Danaee, Yousef I. Aljeesh
Journal of Nursing Management. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Central sensitization and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndromes, and inflammatory bowel disease
Irina Midenfjord, Cecilia Grinsvall, Peter Koj, Ida Carnerup, Hans Törnblom, Magnus Simrén
Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2021; 33(12)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 The psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Self-Regulatory Fatigue Scale
Fatih Özden, Serap Tuna
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Psychometric Analysis of the 2016 Ohio Long-Term Care Facilities Family Satisfaction Scale
Candidus Nwakasi, Nader Mehri, Jyotsana Parajuli
Research on Aging. 2021; : 0164027521
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Comparison of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Authorship Guidelines Among Medical and Dental Professionals
Shahistha Parveen, Rohan Mascarenhas, Vina Vaswani
Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society. 2021; 55(1): 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Generic Self-Reported Questionnaires Measuring Self-Management: A Scoping Review
Émilie Hudon, Catherine Hudon, Mireille Lambert, Mathieu Bisson, Maud-Christine Chouinard
Clinical Nursing Research. 2021; 30(6): 855
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Thyroid cancer risk factors and Pakistani University students’ awareness towards its preventive practice
Ayesha Iqbal, Saira Azhar, Nihal A Ibrahim, Zelal J Kharaba, Mohammad M Iqbal, Shujaat A Khan, Muhammad Arfat Yameen, Ghulam Murtaza
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice. 2021; 27(3): 570
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Orthodontic clinicians’ attitudes and knowledge of dentogingival aesthetics: A cross-sectional survey of BOS members
Eman Ajrash, Andrew T DiBiase, Nikolaos Pandis, Martyn T Cobourne, Jadbinder Seehra
Journal of Orthodontics. 2021; : 1465312521
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Development and validation of a parent-proxy health-related quality of life survey for Australian First Nations children
Kaley Butten, Lee Jones, Peter A Newcombe, Anne B Chang, Jeanie K Sheffield, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Newell W Johnson, Anna Maria Bell, Greggory Ross, Maree Toombs
BMJ Open. 2021; 11(8): e046007
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Rapid Independent Health Literacy Assessment: A Pilot Study Among Native English-speaking and Low English Proficiency Patients
John Blade Hargiss, Jeffery D. St. Jeor, Jennifer L. Horn, Gregory M. Garrison
Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2021; 12: 2150132721
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Measuring job stress in transportation workers: psychometric properties, convergent validity and reliability of the ERI and JCQ among professional drivers
Sergio A. Useche, Francisco Alonso, Boris Cendales, Luis Montoro, Javier Llamazares
BMC Public Health. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Cross-cultural translation, adaptation, and validation of the Amharic version pain self-efficacy questionnaire in people with low back pain in Ethiopia
Mulugeta Bayisa Chala, Catherine Donnelly, Yemataw Wondie, Setareh Ghahari, Jordan Miller
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2021; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms and their impact on health-related quality of life of medical and dentistry students: a multicenter cross-sectional study
Ramzi Shawahna, Hatim Hijaz, Khaled Jallad, Mohammad Abushamma, Mothana Sawafta
BMC Urology. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Validation of the psychometric properties of the Malay advance care planning questionnaire
Mun Kit Lim, Pauline Siew Mei Lai, Pei Se Wong, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Fadzilah Hanum Mohd Mydin
BMC Palliative Care. 2021; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Willingness to volunteer and readiness to practice of undergraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey in Indonesia
Gilbert Lazarus, Ardi Findyartini, Azis Muhammad Putera, Nico Gamalliel, David Nugraha, Imam Adli, Jason Phowira, Lyanna Azzahra, Bagas Ariffandi, Indah Suci Widyahening
BMC Medical Education. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Comparison of conventional and wide field direct ophthalmoscopy on medical students’ self-confidence for fundus examination: a 1-year follow-up
Gabriel Ayub, Rafael Boava Souza, Andrelisa Marina de Albuquerque, José Paulo Cabral de Vasconcellos
BMC Medical Education. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 How do Japanese rate the severity of different diseases and injuries?—an assessment of disability weights for 231 health states by 37,318 Japanese respondents
Shuhei Nomura, Yoshiko Yamamoto, Daisuke Yoneoka, Juanita A. Haagsma, Joshua A. Salomon, Peter Ueda, Rintaro Mori, Damian Santomauro, Theo Vos, Kenji Shibuya
Population Health Metrics. 2021; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Continuity and coordination of care in highly selected chronic cancer patients treated with multiple repeat radiation therapy
Sebastian M. Christ, Maiwand Ahmadsei, Annina Seiler, Eugenia Vlaskou Badra, Jonas Willmann, Caroline Hertler, Matthias Guckenberger
Radiation Oncology. 2021; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Economic burden in the management of transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients in Malaysia from a societal perspective
Asrul Akmal Shafie, Jacqueline Hui Yi Wong, Hishamshah Mohd Ibrahim, Noor Syahireen Mohammed, Irwinder Kaur Chhabra
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2021; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 The TEAM instrument for measuring emergency team performance: validation of the Swedish version at two emergency departments
Klas Karlgren, Anders Dahlström, Anderz Birkestam, Annelie Drevstam Norling, Gustav Forss, Mikael Andersson Franko, Simon Cooper, Thomas Leijon, Charlotta Paulsson
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 2021; 29(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Monitoring of patients with microdialysis following pancreaticoduodenectomy—the MINIMUM study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Espen Lindholm, Nil Ekiz, Tor Inge Tønnessen
Trials. 2021; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Cycling in people with a lower limb amputation
Jutamanee Poonsiri, Rienk Dekker, Pieter U. Dijkstra, Juha M. Hijmans, Jan H. B. Geertzen
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2021; 13(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Collecting quantitative experimental data from a non-WEIRD population: challenges and practical recommendations from a field experiment in rural Sierra Leone
Hanna Luetke Lanfer, Doreen Reifegerste, Sorie Ibrahim Kargbo
BMC Research Notes. 2021; 14(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Internal and external aspects of freedom of choice in mental health: cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Hungarian version of the Oxford CAPabilities questionnaire—Mental Health (OxCAP-MH)
Timea Mariann Helter, Ildiko Kovacs, Andor Kanka, Orsolya Varga, Janos Kalman, Judit Simon
BMC Psychology. 2021; 9(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 An assessment of nursing mothers’ and young people’s access to proprietary and patent medicine vendors’ services in rural communities of south-eastern Nigeria: implication for review of national drug policy
C. J. Uneke, I. Obeka, B. I. Uneke, A. Umeokonkwo, C. A. Nweze, K. I. Otubo, O. E. Uguru
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. 2021; 14(S1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Exploring determinants of community pharmacist-led influenza vaccination in a Middle Eastern country: a national web-based cross-sectional study
Dalal Youssef, Linda Abou-Abbas, Hamad Hassan
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. 2021; 14(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Psychometric adequacy of the Persian adapted version of the Tilburg pregnancy distress scale (P-TPDS)
Leili Salehi, Zoherh Mohmoodi, Fatemeh Rajati, Victor Pop
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of a Portuguese version of the Functional Index for Hand OsteoArthritis (FIHOA)
Francisco Vileimar Andrade de Azevedo, Hermano Alexandre Lima Rocha, Anamaria Jones, Jamil Natour, Francisco Airton Castro da Rocha
Advances in Rheumatology. 2021; 61(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Development, Validation, and Results of a Survey of Personal Electronic Device Use Among 299 Anesthesia Providers From a Single Institution
Steven B. Porter, J. Ross Renew, Stephania Paredes, Christopher R. Roscher, Matthew F. Plevak, Kathleen J. Yost
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2021; Publish Ah
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Translation, validity and reliability of the Danish version of the Adolescent Insomnia Questionnaire
Alessandro Andreucci, Christian Lund Straszek, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Clara Guldhammer, Rocio de la Vega, Tonya M. Palermo
F1000Research. 2021; 9: 1029
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Adaptation and validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Czech children
Roman Cuberek, Marcela Janíková, Jan Dygrýn, Peter M ten Klooster
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(1): e0245256
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 A mixed method study design to explore the adherence of haematological cancer patients to oral anticancer medication in a multilingual and multicultural outpatient setting: The MADESIO protocol
Sandra Michiels, Sandra Tricas-Sauras, Marie Dauvrin, Dominique Bron, Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Joseph Telfair
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(6): e0253526
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Validating the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using Rasch analysis
Mayank Jayaram, Chang Wang, Lu Wang, Kevin C. Chung, Karl Bang Christensen
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(7): e0254984
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Evaluating subjective cognitive decline: a systematic review of tools available for evaluating cognitive complaints in Portuguese
Wyllians Vendramini BORELLI, Vanessa Nicola LABREA, Eduardo LEAL-CONCEICAO, Mirna Wetters PORTUGUEZ, Jaderson Costa da COSTA
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. 2021; 79(3): 238
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Adaptação transcultural do questionário EFFECT para português brasileiro
Lourrany Borges Costa, Shamyr Sulyvan de Castro, Diovana Ximenes Cavalcante Dourado, Bruna Soares Praxedes, Thayná Custódio Mota, Thais Marcella Rios de Lima Tavares
Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica. 2021; 45(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Cross-cultural adaptation of the EFFECT questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese
Lourrany Borges Costa, Shamyr Sulyvan de Castro, Diovana Ximenes Cavalcante Dourado, Bruna Soares Praxedes, Thayná Custódio Mota, Thais Marcella Rios de Lima Tavares
Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica. 2021; 45(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 The Development, Translation, and Validation of Malaysian Survey on the Propensity to Volunteer (MySPV)
Shahrul Aiman Soelar, Zainal ‘Akla Shamsudin, Kumaresan Palanisamy, Mohamad Shukri Abdul Hamid, Nurakmal Ahmad Mustaffa, Noor Amalina Mat Yusof
SSRN Electronic Journal. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
101 Dental Visits and Predictors of Regular Attendance Among Female Schoolchildren in Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Muhanad Alhareky, Muhammad Ashraf Nazir
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry. 2021; Volume 13: 97
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
102 Health Professional Frontline Leaders’ Experiences During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
Bibi Hølge-Hazelton, Mette Kjerholt, Elizabeth Rosted, Stine Thestrup Hansen, Line Zacho Borre, Brendan McCormack
Journal of Healthcare Leadership. 2021; Volume 13: 7
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 Application of the EQ-5D in the Middle East: A Systematic Review Focusing on Patients Living in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abdullah Althemery
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 2021; Volume 14: 1101
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Turkish Validity and Reliability of the Reproductive Coercion Scale
Rusen ÖZTÜRK, Özlem GÜNER
Turkish Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
105 Medical and psychosocial evaluation of patients with complications after sinonasal surgery: Creating a questionnaire
Manuela-Andra Vidinei, Codrut Sarafoleanu
Romanian Journal of Rhinology. 2021; 11(42): 60
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
106 Students’ Preparedness to Learn in e-Learning Environment and their Perception on The MPKT Lecturers’ Readiness to Manage Online Class
Titin Siswantining, Herley Shaori Al-Ash, Kasiyah Junus, Lia Sadita, Diana Nur Vitasari, Luthfiralda Sjahfirdi, Harinaldi Harinaldi
Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal. 2021; 6(2): 387
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
107 Exploring Undergraduate Pharmacy Students Perspectives Towards Antibiotics Use, Antibiotic Resistance, and Antibiotic Stewardship Programs Along With the Pharmacy Teachers’ Perspectives: A Mixed-Methods Study From Pakistan
Faiz Ullah Khan, Amjad Khan, Shahid Shah, Khezar Hayat, Abubakar Usman, Farman Ullah Khan, Zakir Khan, Yusuf Karatas, Tawseef Ahmad, Jie Chang, Usman Rashid Malik, Asad Khan, Sundus Shukar, Muhtar Kadirhaz, Yu Fang
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
108 Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Counseling Competencies Scale-Revised
Wei Xia, William Ho Cheung Li, Tingna Liang, Yuanhui Luo, Laurie Long Kwan Ho, Ankie Tan Cheung, Peige Song
Frontiers in Psychology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 Clinical Validation of the Greek Version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS)—Part II
Konstantinos Stamatiou, Evangelia Samara, Jakhongir F. Alidjanov, Adrian M. E. Pilatz, Kurt G. Naber, Florian M. E. Wagenlehner
Antibiotics. 2021; 10(10): 1253
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish Yellow Flag Questionnaire in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain
Meltem Koç, Zilan Bazancir, Hakan Apaydin, Burcu Talu, Kiliçhan Bayar
The Korean Journal of Pain. 2021; 34(4): 501
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Effect of Psychological Factors on Credit Risk: A Case Study of the Microlending Service in Mongolia
Mandukhai Ganbat, Erdenebileg Batbaatar, Ganzul Bazarragchaa, Togtuunaa Ider, Enkhjargalan Gantumur, Lkhamsuren Dashkhorol, Khosgarig Altantsatsralt, Mandakhbayar Nemekh, Erdenebaatar Dashdondog, Oyun-Erdene Namsrai
Behavioral Sciences. 2021; 11(4): 47
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
112 Undiagnosed Hypertension in a Workplace: The Case of a Logistics Company in Gauteng, South Africa
Morongwa Bokaba, Perpetua Modjadji, Kebogile Elizabeth Mokwena
Healthcare. 2021; 9(8): 964
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
113 Perception of the Online Learning Environment of Nursing Students in Slovenia: Validation of the DREEM Questionnaire
Lucija Gosak, Nino Fijacko, Carolina Chabrera, Esther Cabrera, Gregor Štiglic
Healthcare. 2021; 9(8): 998
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
114 Vietnamese Version of the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS): Translation, Adaptation, and Validation
Thao Huong Nguyen, Hoa Van Truong, Mai Tuyet Vi, Katja Taxis, Thang Nguyen, Kien Trung Nguyen
Healthcare. 2021; 9(11): 1471
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
115 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Antibiotics and Its Resistance: A Two-Phase Mixed-Methods Online Study among Pakistani Community Pharmacists to Promote Rational Antibiotic Use
Faiz Ullah Khan, Farman Ullah Khan, Khezar Hayat, Tawseef Ahmad, Amjad Khan, Jie Chang, Usman Rashid Malik, Zakir Khan, Krizzia Lambojon, Yu Fang
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3): 1320
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
116 HAPPY MAMA Project (PART 1). Assessing the Reliability of the Italian Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS-IT) and Parental Stress Scale (PSS-IT): A Cross-Sectional Study among Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months
Alice Mannocci, Azzurra Massimi, Franca Scaglietta, Sara Ciavardini, Michela Scollo, Claudia Scaglione, Giuseppe La Torre
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8): 4066
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
117 Redesigning a Healthcare Demand Questionnaire for National Population Survey: Experience of a Developing Country
Diane Woei Quan Chong, Suhana Jawahir, Ee Hong Tan, Sondi Sararaks
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9): 4435
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
118 Hesitancy towards COVID-19 Vaccines: An Analytical Cross–Sectional Study
Abdelkarim Aloweidi, Isam Bsisu, Aiman Suleiman, Sami Abu-Halaweh, Mahmoud Almustafa, Mohammad Aqel, Aous Amro, Neveen Radwan, Dima Assaf, Malak Ziyad Abdullah, Malak Albataineh, Aya Mahasneh, Ala’a Badaineh, Hala Obeidat
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10): 5111
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
119 Clinical Activities, Contaminations of Surgeons and Cooperation with Health Authorities in 14 Orthopedic Departments in North Italy during the Most Acute Phase of Covid-19 Pandemic
Alessandro Aprato, Nicola Guindani, Alessandro Massè, Claudio C. Castelli, Alessandra Cipolla, Delia Antognazza, Francesco Benazzo, Federico Bove, Alessandro Casiraghi, Fabio Catani, Dante Dallari, Rocco D’Apolito, Massimo Franceschini, Alberto Momoli, Flavio Ravasi, Fabrizio Rivera, Luigi Zagra, Giovanni Zatti, Fabio D’Angelo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10): 5340
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
120 Frequency of Injury and Illness in the Final 4 Weeks before a Trail Running Competition
Rubén Gajardo-Burgos, Manuel Monrroy-Uarac, René Mauricio Barría-Pailaquilén, Yessenia Norambuena-Noches, Dina Christa Janse van Rensburg, Claudio Bascour-Sandoval, Manuela Besomi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10): 5431
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
121 Polish Adaptation of the Italian Spine Youth Quality of Life Questionnaire
Edyta Kinel, Krzysztof Korbel, Piotr Janusz, Mateusz Kozinoga, Dariusz Czaprowski, Tomasz Kotwicki
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(10): 2081
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
122 Unpacking the Mental Health of Nurses during COVID-19: Evidence from Pakistan
Xinxing Xu, Faiza Manzoor, Shaoping Jiang, Ayesha Mumtaz
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(16): 3546
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
123 Malawian mothers’ experiences of raising children living with albinism: A qualitative descriptive study
Naomi Likumbo, Tania de Villiers, Una Kyriacos
African Journal of Disability. 2021; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
124 Psychometric Properties of the Clergy Suicide Prevention Competencies Developmental Rubric and Faith Leaders’ Readiness to Address Suicide Stigma
Karen Mason, Ji-Young Yoon, Elizabeth Taylor, David Korver, Yuan Hu
Religions. 2021; 12(7): 541
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
125 Need for a central survey-based registry-for effective conduct of survey-based medical research
Bhavna Gupta, Pallavi Ahluwalia
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2021; 65(10): 768
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
126 Addiction-like behavior associated with social media usage in undergraduate students of a government medical college in Delhi, India
Saurav Basu, Ragini Sharma, Pragya Sharma, Nandini Sharma
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(1): 35
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
127 Evaluating Construct Validity and Reliability of Intention to Transfer Training Conduct Instrument Using Rasch Model Analysis
Shaliza Shafie, Faizah Abd Majid, Teoh Sian Hoon, Siti Maftuhah Damio
Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2021; 29(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
128 Determining the Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Intentions of Student Pharmacists in Iran
Fatemeh Mirzayeh Fashami, Mona Nili, Ali Vasheghani Farahani, Nazneen Shaikh, Nilanjana Dwibedi, S. Suresh Madhavan
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2021; 85(2): 8080
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
129 Pilot of a questionnaire study regarding perception of undergraduate medical students towards online classes: Process and perspectives
UnnikrishnanK Menon, Suja Gopalakrishnan, CSumithra N. Unni, Riju Ramachandran, B Poornima, Anu Sasidharan, MS Ashika, Natasha Radhakrishnan
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(5): 2016
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
130 Attitudes of the elderly towards interprofessional cooperation and collaborative pharmacy practices: Questionnaire development
Velibor Ilic, Ljiljana Tasic, Valentina Marinkovic
Arhiv za farmaciju. 2021; 71(5): 410
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
131 Development of a Questionnaire to Assess the Psychosocial Effects of COVID-19 on Peripartum Women
Archana Kumari, Keerthana Rajasekaran, Piyush Ranjan, Ashish D Upadhyay, Anju Singh, Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Neerja Bhatla
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
132 Development of the First Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaires in Arabic for Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Part II): Dual-Center Validation of PCOSQoL-47 and PCOSQoL-42 Questionnaires
Samih A Odhaib, Fatemeh Nasiri Amiri, Mahmood Thamer Altemimi, Husam J Imran, Haider A Alidrisi, Miaad J Mohammed, Abbas A Mansour
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
133 Perceived barriers to medical leadership training and methods to mitigate them in the undergraduate medical curriculum: A mixed-methods study of final-year medical students at two medical schools
Adhnan Omar, Ashish Shrestha, Roland Fernandes, Ankur Shah
Future Healthcare Journal. 2020; 7(3): e11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
134 Sample study protocol for adapting and translating the 5C scale to assess the psychological antecedents of vaccination
Cornelia Betsch, Katrine Bach Habersaat, Sergei Deshevoi, Dorothee Heinemeier, Nikolay Briko, Natalia Kostenko, Janusz Kocik, Robert Böhm, Ingo Zettler, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Ève Dubé, Arnaud Gagneur, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Jonas Sivelä
BMJ Open. 2020; 10(3): e034869
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
135 Organ Donation Decisional Balance Survey: Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version
Ayca Aytar, Aydan Aytar, Atahan Altintas, Ebru H. Ayvazoglu Soy, Aydincan Akdur, Mehmet Haberal
Experimental and Clinical Transplantation. 2020; 18(Suppl2): 58
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
136 Translation, validation and test–retest reliability of the VISA-G patient-reported outcome tool into Danish (VISA-G.DK)
Jens Erik Jorgensen, Angela M. Fearon, Carsten M. Mølgaard, Jens Kristinsson, Jane Andreasen
PeerJ. 2020; 8: e8724
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
137 The Development and Validation of Quality of Life Scale for Iraqi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
EhabM Mikhael, MohamedA Hassali, SaadA Hussain, Nizar Shawky
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences. 2020; 12(3): 262
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
138 Psychometric Properties of the Pornography Craving Questionnaire (PCQ) in Iran
Nader Molavi, Shahrzad Khosravifar, Masumeh Ghazanfanpour, Mohammad Reza Najarzadegan, Abdolhadi Saeidi, Masoudeh Babakhanian
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2020; 14(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
139 Adapting and using the quality of dying and death questionnaire
Arunangshu Ghoshal
Indian Journal of Palliative Care. 2020; 26(1): 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
140 Factors Affecting Consumers’ Alternative Meats Buying Intentions: Plant-Based Meat Alternative and Cultured Meat
Jihee Hwang, Jihye You, Junghoon Moon, Jaeseok Jeong
Sustainability. 2020; 12(14): 5662
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
141 Is Teamwork Different Online Versus Face-to-Face? A Case in Engineering Education
Julian Goñi, Catalina Cortázar, Danilo Alvares, Uranía Donoso, Constanza Miranda
Sustainability. 2020; 12(24): 10444
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
142 Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the duke activity status index in the hindi language
Nishith Govil, Kumar Parag, Barun Kumar, Hariom Khandelwal, Ruchi Dua, Pudi Sivaji
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia. 2020; 23(3): 315
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
143 Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the duke activity status index in the hindi language
Nishith Govil, Kumar Parag, Barun Kumar, Hariom Khandelwal, Ruchi Dua, Pudi Sivaji
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia. 2020; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
144 Survey research methods: Preparing a validity argument
GeorgeM Harrison, KatieA Azama
Education in the Health Professions. 2020; 3(3): 87
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
145 Development of the Home Cooking EnviRonment and Equipment Inventory Observation form (Home-CookERITM): An Assessment of Content Validity, Face Validity, and Inter-Rater Agreement
Sonja Schönberg, Roberta Asher, Samantha Stewart, Matthew J. Fenwick, Lee Ashton, Tamara Bucher, Klazine Van der Horst, Christopher Oldmeadow, Clare E. Collins, Vanessa A. Shrewsbury
Nutrients. 2020; 12(6): 1853
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
146 Development and Validation of the Short Healthy Eating Index Survey with a College Population to Assess Dietary Quality and Intake
Sarah Colby, Wenjun Zhou, Chelsea Allison, Anne E. Mathews, Melissa D. Olfert, Jesse Stabile Morrell, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Geoffrey Greene, Onikia Brown, Kendra Kattelmann, Karla Shelnutt
Nutrients. 2020; 12(9): 2611
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
147 Exploring the Validity of the 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS): A Cross-National Study in Seven European Countries around the Mediterranean Region
María-Teresa García-Conesa, Elena Philippou, Christos Pafilas, Marika Massaro, Stefano Quarta, Vanda Andrade, Rui Jorge, Mihail Chervenkov, Teodora Ivanova, Dessislava Dimitrova, Viktorija Maksimova, Katarina Smilkov, Darinka Gjorgieva Ackova, Lence Miloseva, Tatjana Ruskovska, Georgia Eirini Deligiannidou, Christos A. Kontogiorgis, Paula Pinto
Nutrients. 2020; 12(10): 2960
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
148 Translation and Validation of the Mindful Self-Care Scale—Chinese Version: A Pilot Study
Ming Yu Claudia Wong
Psych. 2020; 2(4): 338
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
149 Treatment-Seeking Behavior Among Male Civil Servants in Northeastern Malaysia: A Mixed-Methods Study
Pathman Arumugam, Tengku Alina Tengku Ismail, Aziah Daud, Kamarul Imran Musa, Noor Aman A. Hamid, Shaiful Bahari Ismail, Zakiah Mohd Said
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8): 2713
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
150 Preparedness of Frontline Doctors in Jordan Healthcare Facilities to COVID-19 Outbreak
Aiman Suleiman, Isam Bsisu, Hasan Guzu, Abeer Santarisi, Murad Alsatari, Ala’ Abbad, Ahmad Jaber, Taima’a Harb, Ahmad Abuhejleh, Nisreen Nadi, Abdelkarim Aloweidi, Mahmoud Almustafa
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(9): 3181
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
151 A Questionnaire Survey of Management of Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in Poland
Mariusz Hofman, Norbert Hajder, Izabela Duda, Lukasz J. Krzych
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11): 4161
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
152 A Snapshot of Knowledge about Oral Cancer in Italy: A 505 Person Survey
Riccardo Nocini, Giorgia Capocasale, Daniele Marchioni, Francesca Zotti
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(13): 4889
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
153 Attitudes and Consumer Behavior toward Foods Offered in Staff Canteens
Ewa Czarniecka-Skubina, Hanna Górska-Warsewicz, Joanna Trafialek
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17): 6239
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
154 Design and Validity of a Choice-Modeling Questionnaire to Analyze the Feasibility of Implementing Physical Activity on Prescription at Primary Health-Care Settings
Sergio Calonge-Pascual, Francisco Fuentes-Jiménez, José A. Casajús Mallén, Marcela González-Gross
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18): 6627
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
155 Impact of COVID-19Quarantine on Low Back Pain Intensity, Prevalence, and Associated Risk Factors among Adult Citizens Residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia): A Cross-Sectional Study
Peter Šagát, Peter Bartík, Pablo Prieto González, Drago? Ioan Tohanean, Damir Knjaz
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(19): 7302
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
156 German Dentists’ Preferences for the Treatment of Apical Periodontitis: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Jonas Conrad, Jan Retelsdorf, Sameh Attia, Christof Dörfer, Mohamed Mekhemar
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20): 7447
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
157 Persistent Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children under Five Years Attending Primary Health Care Facilities in Limpopo Province, South Africa
Perpetua Modjadji, Josephine Mashishi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20): 7580
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
158 Development and Validation of a Well-Being Measure on Young Basketball Players: The NFAPW Scale
Jorge Lorenzo Calvo, Jorge García-González, Monica Flo García, Daniel Mon-López
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21): 7987
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
159 Factorial Validity and Variance of the Maslach Burnout Inventory between Demographic and Workload Groups among Dentists of Lithuania
Egle Slabšinskiene, Andrej Gorelik, Ingrida Vasiliauskiene, Aiste Kavaliauskiene, Apolinaras Zaborskis
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24): 9154
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
160 Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcomes following Surgical Treatment of Lymphedema
Michelle Coriddi, Joseph Dayan, Nikhil Sobti, David Nash, Johanna Goldberg, Anne Klassen, Andrea Pusic, Babak Mehrara
Cancers. 2020; 12(3): 565
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
161 The Epilepsy Risk Awareness (ERA) Scale: A New Era for Holistic Risk Assessment in Epilepsy
Rachel Ison, Virad Kisan, Christine Cole, Heather Angus-Leppan
Frontiers in Neurology. 2020; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
162 Development and Evaluation of a Screening Tool to Aid the Diagnosis of Cluster Headache
Alina Buture, Jason W Boland, Lisa Dikomitis, Chao Huang, Fayyaz Ahmed
Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(2): 77
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
163 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS (MOQ-T) MEASUREMENT ITEMS USING CONTENT VALIDITY RATIO (CVR)
Nursohana Othman
JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF CONTINUA AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES. 2020; 15(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
164 Psychometric characteristics of the BEITI – an assessment scale of daily functioning
Maya Frenkel, Nava Eckstein, Silvi Frenkel-Toledo
NeuroRehabilitation. 2020; 47(4): 387
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
165 Conducting Surveys in Dental Education Research: Guidelines and Reminders
Britta Magnuson, Shruti Jain, Tamar Roomian, Sarah Pagni, Duong T. Tran, Matthew D. Finkelman
Journal of Dental Education. 2020; 84(3): 283
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
166 Arabic Translation of the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire: Instrument Validation Study of Factor Structure and Reliability
Nasser F BinDhim, Nora A Althumiri, Mada H Basyouni, Omar T Sims, Noara Alhusseini, Saleh A Alqahtani
JMIR Formative Research. 2020; 4(11): e24169
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
167

A TASMAN Expedition: Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Specific Self-Management Abilities

Maarten Voorhaar, Jitske Tiemensma, Guus Asijee, Annerika Slok, Jean Muris, Ad Kaptein
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2020; Volume 15: 1415
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
168 Psychometric properties of the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire – Portuguese Version (BENDEP-SRQ-PV)
Daniela F. Curado, Viviam V. de Barros, Emérita S. Opaleye, Ana Regina Noto
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 2020; 42(4): 358
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
169 Patient-centered assessments: how can they be used in dental clinical trials?
Matheus França PERAZZO, Júnia Maria SERRA-NEGRA, Ramon Targino FIRMINO, Isabela Almeida PORDEUS, Paulo Antônio MARTINS-JÚNIOR, Saul Martins PAIVA
Brazilian Oral Research. 2020; 34( suppl 2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
170 The development and validation of a measurement instrument to investigate determinants of health care utilisation for low back pain in Ethiopia
Getahun Kebede Beyera, Jane O’Brien, Steven Campbell, Angel Blanch
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0227801
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
171 Validation of the Dutch version of the primary care resources and support for self-management tool: A tool to assess the quality of self-management support
Maarten Voorhaar, Erik WMA Bischoff, Guus Asijee, Jean Muris, Onno CP van Schayck, Annerika Slok, Anja Visser, Meena Daivadanam
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(3): e0229771
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
172 Adaptation and validation of the Polish version of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire among cardiovascular patients and medical students
Michal Seweryn Karbownik, Beata Jankowska-Polanska, Robert Horne, Karol Maksymilian Górski, Edward Kowalczyk, Janusz Szemraj, Wen-Jun Tu
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(4): e0230131
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
173 Medication adherence and self-care behaviours among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ghana
Richard Adongo Afaya, Victoria Bam, Thomas Bavo Azongo, Agani Afaya, Abigail Kusi-Amponsah, James Mbangbe Ajusiyine, Tahiru Abdul Hamid, M Barton Laws
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(8): e0237710
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
174 Palliative care in Mozambique: Physicians’ knowledge, attitudes and practices
Emilia Pinto, Gustavo Marcos, Camila Walters, Ferraz Gonçalves, Jahit Sacarlal, Luisa Castro, Guilhermina Rego, Kevan Hartshorn
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(8): e0238023
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
175 Preliminary steps of the development of a Minimum Uniform Dataset applicable to the international wheelchair sector
María Luisa Toro-Hernández, Nancy Augustine, Padmaja Kankipati, Patricia Karg, Karen Rispin, Richard M. Schein, Krithika Kandavel, Megan E. D’Innocenzo, Mary Goldberg, Jonathan Pearlman, Sara Rubinelli
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(9): e0238851
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
176 Exploring persons with disabilities preparedness, perceptions and experiences of disasters in Tuvalu
Natano Elisala, Amelia Turagabeci, Masoud Mohammadnezhad, Tamara Mangum, Stefano Federici
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(10): e0241180
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
177 Physical activity for people living with cancer: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general practitioners in Australia
Georgina Alderman, Richard Keegan, Stuart Semple, Kellie Toohey, Adam Todd
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(11): e0241668
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
178 The Noetic Experience and Belief Scale: A validation and reliability study
Helané Wahbeh, Garret Yount, Cassandra Vieten, Dean Radin, Arnaud Delorme
F1000Research. 2020; 8: 1741
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
179 Measuring extraordinary experiences and beliefs: A validation and reliability study
Helané Wahbeh, Garret Yount, Cassandra Vieten, Dean Radin, Arnaud Delorme
F1000Research. 2020; 8: 1741
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
180 Translation, validity and reliability of the Danish version of the Adolescent Insomnia Questionnaire
Alessandro Andreucci, Christian Lund Straszek, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Clara Guldhammer, Rocio de la Vega, Tonya M. Palermo
F1000Research. 2020; 9: 1029
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
181 Development, validation and translation of psychological tests
Jessy Fenn, Chee-Seng Tan, Sanju George
BJPsych Advances. 2020; 26(5): 306
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
182 Validation of the Arabic version of the “self-evaluation of negative symptoms” scale (SNS)
Aline Hajj, Souheil Hallit, Karam Chamoun, Hala Sacre, Sahar Obeid, Chadia Haddad, Sonia Dollfus, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz
BMC Psychiatry. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
183 The impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training on schoolchildren and their CPR knowledge, attitudes toward CPR, and willingness to help others and to perform CPR: mixed methods research design
Sanela Pivac, Primož Gradišek, Brigita Skela-Savic
BMC Public Health. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
184 Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Toronto Hospital Alertness Test
Sha Li, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Janet Yuen Ha Wong, Kate Wilkinson, Colin Shapiro, Edmond Pui Hang Choi, Bradley McPherson, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam, Mary Sau Man Ip
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes. 2020; 4(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
185 Users’ acceptance of electronic patient portals in Lebanon
Gladys N. Honein-AbouHaidar, Jumana Antoun, Karim Badr, Sani Hlais, Houry Nazaretian
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
186 Validation of the Partners at Care Transitions Measure (PACT-M): assessing the quality and safety of care transitions for older people in the UK
Eirini Oikonomou, Bethan Page, Rebecca Lawton, Jenni Murray, Helen Higham, Charles Vincent
BMC Health Services Research. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
187 Post-stroke Quality of Life Index: A quality of life tool for stroke survivors from Sri Lanka
P.K.B. Mahesh, M.W. Gunathunga, S. Jayasinghe, S.M. Arnold, S.N. Liyanage
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2020; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
188 Assessing mental well-being in a Sinhala speaking Sri Lankan population: validation of the WHO-5 well-being index
B. P. R. Perera, R. Jayasuriya, A. Caldera, A. R. Wickremasinghe
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2020; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
189 Acceptance of the ‘Assessment of Physiotherapy Practice (Chinese)’ as a standardised evaluation of professional competency in Chinese physiotherapy students: an observational study
Jia Hu, Alice Y.M. Jones, Xuelian Zhou, Hua Zhai, Shirley P. C. Ngai, Ka-Chun Siu, Megan Dalton
BMC Medical Education. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
190 Cultural adaptation and validation of the Polish version of the physical activity scale for older people living in a community: a cross-sectional study
Agnieszka Wisniowska-Szurlej, Agnieszka Cwirlej-Sozanska, Natalia Woloszyn, Bernard Sozanski, Anna Wilmowska-Pietruszynska, Richard Washburn
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity. 2020; 17(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
191 Validity and Reliability of Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) in Iranian People with Parkinson’s Disease
Maryam Mehdizadeh, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Sepide Goudarzi, Ainaz Moshtagh, Farzaneh Dehghanian Nasrabadi, Sayed Amir Hasan Habibi, Ghorban Taghizadeh
Parkinson's Disease. 2020; 2020: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
192 Quality of Life Assessment in Diabetic Patients Using a Validated Tool in a Patient Population Visiting a Tertiary Care Center in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Dayanidhi Meher, Sonali Kar, Mona Pathak, Snigdha Singh, Antonio M. Rabasco
The Scientific World Journal. 2020; 2020: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
193 Measuring the occupational balance of people with insomnia in a Chinese population: Preliminary psychometric evidence on the Chinese version of the Occupational Balance Questionnaire
Eris CM Ho, Mona Dür, Tanja Stamm, Andrew MH Siu
Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2020; 33(2): 33
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
194 Smoker profiles and their influence on smokers’ intention to use a digital decision aid aimed at the uptake of evidence-based smoking cessation tools: An explorative study
Thomas Gültzow, Eline Suzanne Smit, Raesita Hudales, Carmen D Dirksen, Ciska Hoving
DIGITAL HEALTH. 2020; 6: 2055207620
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
195 Impact of surface acting and deep acting techniques on teachers’ organizational commitment
Kazeem Olanrewaju Ogunsola, Rodrique Ancelot Harvey Fontaine, Muhammad Tahir Jan
PSU Research Review. 2020; ahead-of-p(ahead-of-p)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
196 An Empirical Investigation of Geographically Distributed Agile Development: The Agile Enterprise Architecture is a Communication Enabler
Yehia Ibrahim Alzoubi, Asif Qumer Gill
IEEE Access. 2020; 8: 80269
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
197 The Role of Alignment Between IS Strategy and Social Capital on the IS Capability and Business Performance Relationship: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Mahendra Adhi Nugroho, Ruzita Jusoh, Noor Akma Mohd Salleh
IEEE Access. 2020; 8: 152760
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
198 The transcultural adaptation and the validity and reliability of the Turkish Version of Perroca's Patient Classification Instrument
Guzin Ayan, Emine Türkmen
Journal of Nursing Management. 2020; 28(2): 259
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
199 The gastrointestinal endoscopy satisfaction questionnaire captures patient satisfaction as a key quality indicator of gastrointestinal endoscopy
Govert Veldhuijzen, Mike J.P. de Jong, Cariline M. Roosen, Peter D. Siersema, Joost P.H. Drenth, Aura A.J. van Esch
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2020; 32(7): 832
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
200 Spanish version of the mini-BESTest: a translation, transcultural adaptation and validation study in patients with Parkinson’s disease
Carolina Bustamante-Contreras, Yenifer Ojeda-Gallardo, Claudia Rueda-Sanhueza, Pedro O. Rossel, Claudia Martínez-Carrasco
International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. 2020; 43(2): 129
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
201 The characteristics of Queensland private physiotherapy practitioners’ interprofessional interactions: a cross-sectional survey study
Jack A. Seaton, Anne L. Jones, Catherine L. Johnston, Karen L. Francis
Australian Journal of Primary Health. 2020; 26(6): 500
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
202 Knowledge, attitude and practices among consumers toward antibiotics use and antibiotic resistance in Swat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Faiz Ullah Khan, Farman Ullah Khan, Khezar Hayat, Jie Chang, Amna Saeed, Zakir Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Usman Malik Rasheed, Naveel Atif, Wenjing Ji, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Yu Fang
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2020; 18(9): 937
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
203 Development and validation of antisnake venom knowledge assessment tool (AKAT) for healthcare practitioners
Auwal A. Bala, Abubakar I. Jatau, Ismaeel Yunusa, Mustapha Mohammed, Al-Kassim H. Mohammed, Abubakar M. Isa, Wada A. Sadiq, Kabiru A. Gulma, Inuwa Bello, Sani Malami, Godpower C. Michael, Basheer A.Z. Chedi
Toxicon: X. 2020; 8: 100064
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
204 Adoption of mobile applications for teaching-learning process in rural girls’ schools in India: an empirical study
Sheshadri Chatterjee, Dipasree Majumdar, Sanjay Misra, Robertas Damaševicius
Education and Information Technologies. 2020; 25(5): 4057
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
205 Validation of the UDI-6 and the ICIQ-UI SF – Croatian version
Mislav Mikuš, Mario Coric, Luka Matak, Bernarda Škegro, Goran Vujic, Vladimir Banovic
International Urogynecology Journal. 2020; 31(12): 2625
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
206 Psychometric validation of an Assessment Questionnaire on the Perception of and Adaptation to Visual Handicap in Adults (QUEPAHVA)
C. Heren-Le Bastard, A. Bernard, R. Fliss, S. Legouvello, P. Allain
Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie. 2020; 43(10): e341
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
207 A Screening Tool for Patients With Lumbar Instability: A Content Validity and Rater Reliability of Thai Version
Thiwaphon Chatprem, Rungthip Puntumetakul, Wantanee Yodchaisarn, Wantana Siritaratiwat, Rose Boucaut, Surachai Sae-jung
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2020; 43(5): 515
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
208 Questionnaires Assessing the Quality of Life of Ocular Allergy Patients
Ereeny Mikhail, Serap Azizoglu, Moneisha Gokhale, Cenk Suphioglu
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 2020; 8(9): 2945
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
209 Practice patterns of post-ERCP pancreatitis prophylaxis techniques in the United States: a survey of advanced endoscopists
Patrick Avila, Ian Holmes, Abdul Kouanda, Mustafa Arain, Sun-Chuan Dai
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2020; 91(3): 568
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
210 Meal identity as practice - Towards an understanding of business travellers’ meal practices
Joachim Sundqvist, Ute Walter, Agneta Hörnell
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science. 2020; 22: 100237
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
211 Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of FCV-19S
V. Tsipropoulou, V. A. Nikopoulou, Vasiliki Holeva, Z. Nasika, I. Diakogiannis, S. Sakka, S. Kostikidou, C. Varvara, E. Spyridopoulou, E. Parlapani
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
212 Mental Health Screening for COVID-19: a Proposed Cutoff Score for the Greek Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S)
V. A. Nikopoulou, V. Holeva, Eleni Parlapani, P. Karamouzi, P. Voitsidis, G. N. Porfyri, A. Blekas, K. Papigkioti, S. Patsiala, I. Diakogiannis
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
213 Evaluation of dietary pattern in early pregnancy using the FIGO Nutrition Checklist compared to a food frequency questionnaire
Kit Ying Tsoi, Ruth S.M. Chan, Liz Sin Li, Fionnuala M. McAuliffe, Mark A. Hanson, Wing Hung Tam, Ronald C.W. Ma
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2020; 151(S1): 37
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
214 Bournemouth questionnaire Arabic version: Cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability for patients with low back pain
Ahmed Ebrahim Elerian, Nabil Mahmoud Abdel-Aal, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdelhay
Physiotherapy Research International. 2020; 25(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
215 Translation of self-efficacy scale (SCSES) stoma care instruments Indonesia version: Test validity and reliability
Masriani Zainuddin, Yuliana Syam, Saldy Yusuf
Enfermería Clínica. 2020; 30: 439
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
216 Effect of digital storytelling on self-efficacy of patients with a stoma: Preliminary study
Masriani Zainuddin, Kasmawati Kadir, Anggia Riske Wijayanti, Yuliana Syam, Abdul Majid
Enfermería Clínica. 2020; 30: 229
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
217 A mixed-method exploration into the experience of members of the FAO/WHO International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN): study protocol
Carmen Joseph Savelli, Céu Mateus
BMJ Open. 2019; 9(5): e027091
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
218 German translation, cultural adaption and validation of the unidimensional self-efficacy scale for multiple sclerosis: a study protocol
Barbara Seebacher, Roger J Mills, Markus Reindl, Laura Zamarian, Raija Kuisma, Simone Kircher, Christian Brenneis, Rainer Ehling, Florian Deisenhammer
BMJ Open. 2019; 9(8): e029565
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
Previous article    Next article
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  IN THIS Article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Preliminary Cons...
   Developing a Que...
   Translating a Qu...
   Validating a Que...
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed38641    
    Printed209    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded6959    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 218    

Recommend this journal