Year : 2019  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 306-311

Analgesia nociception index and hemodynamic changes during skull pin application for supratentorial craniotomies in patients receiving scalp block versus pin-site infiltration: A randomized controlled trial

1 Department of Neuroanaesthesia and Neurocritical Care, Rajagiri Hospital, Ernakulam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Neuroanaesthesia and Neurocritical Care, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kamath Sriganesh
Department of Neuroanaesthesia and Neurocritical Care, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sja.SJA_812_18

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Background: Noxious stimulation such as skull pin insertion for craniotomy elicits a significant hemodynamic response. Both regional analgesic techniques (pin-site infiltration [PSI] and scalp block [SB]), and systemic strategies (opioids, alpha-2 agonists, anesthetics, and beta-blockers) have shown to attenuate this response. Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) provides objective information about the magnitude of nociception and adequacy of analgesia. This study compared ANI and hemodynamic changes in patients receiving local anesthetic SB versus PSI during skull pin application for craniotomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients scheduled for elective supratentorial tumor surgery were randomly allocated to receive local anesthetic SB or PSI for skull pin insertion after the induction of anesthesia. Data regarding heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and ANI were collected every minute for 5 min after the skull pin insertion beginning from the baseline. Results: A significant difference was observed in ANI values between the SB (higher ANI) and the PSI groups during skull pin insertion, P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 for ANIi and ANIm, respectively. Similarly, a significant difference was seen in HR and BP both within and between the two groups during skull pin insertion (P < 0.001 for both). The magnitude and duration of change were smaller in the SB group compared with the PSI group for the parameters studied. A strong negative linear correlation was noted between ANI and hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions: The changes in HR, BP, and ANI were significantly less with local anesthetic SB compared with PSI during skull pin insertion in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy.

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