Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 444-451

Pediatric obesity and anesthetic challenges of metabolic surgery

1 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Management, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University (ASU), Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Surgery King, Salman International University, Mostafa, El Tor, South Sinai, Egypt
3 Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
4 Department of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, United States

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Hashim
Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University (ASU), Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sja.sja_469_22

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Obesity in the pediatric population is considered a growing problem. It is likely that there will be a significant impact related to obesity on the health of future generations. Obesity has increased the incidence of a spectrum of diseases ranging from microvascular complications over the retina and peripheral nerves to an increased incidence of cancer. We have conducted an electronic search in MEDLINE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus scientific databases targeting studies published between 2000 till 2019. Several modalities have shown a wide spectrum of the effectiveness of weight control among adolescents. Despite achieving short-term success among obese adolescents, maintaining such change is challenging. The emergence of metabolic or bariatric surgeries has opened the door for long-term control over weight gain with considerable remission of unfavorable metabolic mediated or modulated effects associated with obesity such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The most commonly practiced metabolic surgery among adolescents is sleeve gastrectomy which is associated with comparable weight and metabolic control and a lesser risk of complication. Anesthesia is considered a major challenge among the pediatric population, especially those with significant obesity. Preoperative evaluation is always warranted to exclude and manage different associated comorbidities. The anesthetic challenges associated with pediatric obesity begin with intubation. Maintenance and emergence from anesthesia along with postoperative antiemetics and analgesia can pose additional challenges. Managing the postoperative period is considered a cornerstone in the early detection and management of any postoperative complication. Especially those complications related to the metabolic and nutritional aspects of the bariatric surgery. Finally, despite being a valuable option in managing obesity, bariatric surgery in adolescents comes with significant anesthetic challenges that need to be consistently evaluated and managed.

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